Three Cylinder Steam Locomotives
As far as I know, there are only five surviving 3-cylinder rod steam
locomotives in the United States (this, of course, does not include all
of the 3-cylinder Shay type locomotives). They include:
Southern Pacific 4-10-2 5021 at the Los Angeles Co. Fairplex, Pomona, CA (Southern California Chapter Railway and Locomotive Historical Society)
Union Pacific 4-12-2 9000 at the Los Angeles Co. Fairplex, Pomona, CA (Southern California Chapter Railway and Locomotive Historical Society)
Alton & Southern 0-8-0 12 at the Museum of Transportation, St. Louis, MO
London & North Eastern Railway 4-6-2 60008 at the National Railroad Museum, Green Bay, WI
Baldwin 4-10-2 60000 at the Franklin Institute Science Museum, Philadelphia, PA
Southern Pacific 4-10-2 Number 5021
This is the only surviving Southern Pacific three-cylinder 4-10-2 (out
of 49). The first of this type was built in 1925 by ALCO. The first
axle is cranked to allow clearance for the center connecting rod on the
second axle. The Southern Pacific named this wheel arrangement after their
own name (Southern Pacific). The Union Pacific also had locomotives (10)
of this wheel arrangement (none survived). They named them "Overlands".
This locomotive has 63 inch drivers. With its three cylinders, it could
develop 4,100 HP. Its top speed was 60 MPH. They were used for both
freight and passenger service over Donner Pass until it was determined
that they were too rigid for the curves on that line. 5021 came to this
museum under her own power. 5021 is in maintained in excellent condition.
Union Pacific 4-12-2 Number 9000
Please see 4-12-2 Type Steam Locomotives
Alton & Southern 0-8-0 12
This Alton & Southern 0-8-0 is located at the Museum of Transportation in
St. Louis, MO. It was built by ALCO in 1926 and cost $57,598.20. It
ran up 622,626 miles in service and was donated to the museum in 1948. Here
is the locomotive data from its builders photo:
|American Locomotive Company|
|Class 080 S 243, "Three-Cylinder"
||Road Number 12
|Built for the Alton & Southern|
|Gauge of Track
||Driving Wheel Diameter
||Weight in Working Order - Pounds
||Engine & Tender
||Evaporating Surfaces, Square Ft.
||Superheating Surface Square Ft.
||Grate Area Sq. Ft.
||Maximum Tractive Power
||Factor of Adhesion
Order No S-1560
|Tender Type 8-Wheeled.
||Capacity Water 9000 gals
||Fuel 14 tons
London & North Eastern Railway 4-6-2 60008
This three cylinder Pacific, named Dwight D. Eisenhower ,
is displayed at the National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, Wisconsin.
It was originally named Golden Shuttle but was renamed in late
1945. It was built by the LNER as the A4 class, introduced in Sept 1935.
There were 35 in the class. When British Railways was formed in 1946
by the amalgamation of four "Groups", there was some number duplication
on locomotives. Block numbers were allocated the four former groups
of locomotives. Former LNER locos were numbered in the series starting
at 60000. That is how 60008 (formerly number 8) came about.
Data taken from "British Locomotive Classes" Promotional Reprint Company
1996. First published by the Locomotive Publishing Company 1945 entitled
Modern Locomotive Classes. The locos modified during the war, with sections
of the streamline casing removed, so the weights may be wrong for your
engine. Further, some engines had double chimneys with Kylchap exhaust
systems. The record breaking engine Mallard (126 mph) was so equipped.
|Boiler max. O.D.:
||6' - 5"
||41.2 sq. ft.
|Heating surface firebox + combustion chamber:
||231 sq ft
|Total evaporative surface:
||2576 sq ft
|Length between tube plates:
||17' - 11.75"
||750 sq ft
||(3) 18.5" dia by 26" stroke
||Walschaerts with Gresley derived motion for inside cylinder
|Steam lap/Max travel:
||1 5/8" / 5 3/4"
||102 ton 19 cwt
||64 ton 3 cwt
||8 tons coal, 5000 gallons water
Baldwin Demonstrator Number 60000
With the year 1926 came an outstanding event in Baldwin's history, for at
that time the Works was ready to build its sixty-thousandth locomotive. To
symbolize this event President Samuel M. Vauclain planned and built a huge
three-cylinder compound, high-pressure locomotive. It was of the 4-10-2
type and closely resembled engines with this wheel arrangement on the
Southern Pacific Railroad. To safely accommodate the high boiler pressure
of 350 lb. per square inch, a water-tube firebox was used.
Built as a Baldwin demonstrator in 1926, this locomotive was used by
various railroads around the country to show some of Baldwin's latest
ideas. It was numbered 60000 to commemorate the 60,000th locomotive to be
built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. It ran successfully on either coal
or oil as fuel. It also attained the highest power ever developed up to
the time on the Altoona test plant, namely, 4,500 horsepower. This, at the
time, exceeded the plant's capacity and restricted attempts to obtain
greater power with additional tests. It has several features which made it
From the book The Locomotives that Baldwin Built by Fred Westing
NOTE: If you look carefully under the smokebox front, you will see the
center high-pressure cylinder and steam chest. This cylinder is angled
downward to the back. The piston is connected via a crank to the second
set of drivers.
- It has a water tube firebox.
- It has three cylinders.
- It used compound steam expansion.
The numbers 60000 appear on the cab side, and on the number boards and
headlight of the engine. The tender lettering reads THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE
WORKS. The tender is a Vanderbilt with a short coal space and 6-wheel
trucks. Here are a few more specifications on the 60000:
Although there were not any serious problems with it, the railroads rejected
it because they found it overly heavy and complex and were wary of most of
its features. Also, the 4-8-4 was quickly becoming the ideal high-speed,
heavy freight and passenger locomotive. With only 100,000 miles on it
(very little for a steam locomotive), it was returned to Philadelphia in
1928 and stored until 1932 when it was donated to the Franklin Institute
Science Museum in Philadelphia, PA.
- Wheel arrangement: 4-10-2
- Cylinders: High pressure (1) 27x32 inches
- Cylinders: Low pressure (2) 27x32 inches
- Boiler diameter: 84 inches
- Steam pressure: 350 psi
- Driver diameter: 63.5 inches
- Weight on drivers: 338,400 lbs
- Total engine weight: 457,500 lbs
- Total engine & tender weight: 700,900 lbs
- Tractive force: 82,500 lbs
It is on display there today in the basement on a short piece of track. A
hydraulic system is used to move the locomotive back and forth about fifteen
feet. The demo was once propelled by a worm gear. It was changed over to a
hydraulic system in the mid 1970s. By that time, the bearings in the drivers
had become egg shaped, supposedly because of all the reversing, and some BLH
retirees figured out how to replace them. The distance traveled inside the
museum was staggering for such a short trip: conservatively, 30 ft/trip x 2
trips/demo x 5 demos/day x 360 operating days/yr = about 20 miles/yr, or
about 400 miles in reverse by 1980.
Other Pages on the Baldwin 60,000
Other 3-Cylinder Steam
Baldwin built a batch of 3-cylinder pacifics for the EFCB (Central of
Brazil) in 1927. They were broad gauge machines (5ft 3") (Brazil Central
had both 5'-3" and Metre gauge lines). One of these is preserved in working
order and operates about once a month. It is stored at the Museum of the
Immigrants in Sao Paulo.
3-Cylinder Steam Reference
4-10-2: Three Barrels of Steam by Boynton.
Vintage Rails magazine, No 15, November/December 1998, Pentrex
Union Pacific Type Volume 2, by Kratville and Bush
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