Alabama Midland / Atlantic Coast Line / Charleston & Western Carolina 2-8-0 "Consolidation" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class L (Locobase 7679)

Data from the ACL-3 1946 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volumes 24, pp. 150+; 25, pp. 124; and 26, pp. 155+. Works numbers for the first four were 19568-19571 in October 1901. Those that went directly to the ACL in 1903 were 21498, 21505 in January 1903; 23144-23145, 23153, 23186, 23208-23210 in November; 24540 in August 1904.

Consolidations made up only a small part of all of the locomotives operated by the Atlantic Coast LineL and these were the first to be procured by the railroad in the 20th century. In fact, the first four went to the Alabama Midland Railway, which linked Bainbridge, Ga and Montgomery, Ala, when it still operated under the Plant System banner.

The Plant System was absorbed by the ACL within months of this purchase. The ACL went back to Baldwin in 1903 to order a total of 10 more that were produced over the next year and a half. The spec for 706-713 advised the builder "Better [steam] dome construction required to avoid leakage at junction of dome base and barrel of boiler."

In the Baldwin specs, we find that their operating area included "practically no level track." Instead, they faced several straight grades of 66 ft/mile (1.25%) over 3 1/2-4 miles (5.6-6.4 km) over which they were to provide hauling capacity of 865 to 900 tons.

They had a relatively small grate that nevertheless suited the small cylinder dimensions. As delivered, the firebox heating surface area was measured at 172.4 sq ft (16.02 sq m). The later measurement shown in the specs above included 24 sq ft (2.23 sq m) of arch tubes. Tender weight estimates for the latter two batches were 90,000 lb (40,823 kg) for the 704-705 and 95,000 lb (43,091 kg) for 706-713.

Apparently, none of these was superheated. Several were converted to switch engines by the end of the teens. The whole class was retired in 1939-1942.


Class L-1 (Locobase 11168)

Data from the ACL 2-8-0 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 25153-25154, 25168 in February 1905

These light Consolidations completed the rather small holding of 2-8-0s on the ACL. The three L-1 appeared in 1905 as follow-ons to the Class L shown in Locobase 7679. The biggest difference between the two classes was the L-1's 50% larger grate.

Not long after they entered service, all 7 were superheated to the same standard; see Locobase 7680.


Class L-1 (Locobase 13017)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 29, p. 205. Works numbers were 29812-29813, 29830 in December 1906; 31465-31466 in August 1907.

Intriguing note in the specs about the tube counts for this class of Consolidations. It reports that locomotive 965 (in the order book for the year) had 321 tubes (one more than the others) "...on a/c error in boiler shop." That's embarrassing.

Alabama Midland L-class Consolidations shown in Locobase 7679 were essentially identical to this set, which served the C & WC through World War II .


Class L-1-S/L-2-S (Locobase 7680)

Data from the ACL-3 1946 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

These light Consolidations completed the rather small holding of 2-8-0s on the ACL. The three L-1 appeared in 1905 (Locobase 11168) with the four L-2 following in 1911 (Locobase 11169).

Not long after they entered service, all 7 were superheated to the same standard. All had the "modern" steam chest using 8" piston valves with 6" travel. To incorporate the 26 flues, the design had to sacrifice fully half of its small tubes. The shops also raised the boiler's pressure by 15 psi.

Although present in small numbers and possessing relatively small boilers for their cylinder volumes, they showed staying power in the niche in which they operated and saw out steam on the ACL as they were scrapped in 1951-1955.


Class L-2 (Locobase 11169)

Data from the ACL 2-8-0 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 35971-35972, 35984, 35996 in January 1911.

Six years after the three L-1 appeared (Locobase 11168), Baldwin supplied this quartet. The L-2s differed from the L-1s in the use of outside Walschaert valve gear and in weighing about a ton more. The tender also weighed more. (The builder's official name had changed to reflect that it was no longer a partnership, but a corporation.)

Not long after they entered service, all 7 were superheated to the same standard; see Locobase 7680.


Class L-2 (Locobase 13676)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 35, p. 239. Works numbers were 35139-35142 in August 1910, 35245-35246 in September.

These were essentially identical to the L-1 Consolidations of 1906 shown in Locobase 13017 except for the replacement of Stephenson valve gear with Walschaert outside radial valve gear (although the valve train retained the Richardson balanced slide valves). Another difference was the addition of arch tubes, which contributed 31 sq ft to the firebox heating surface area.

Four more L-2s with 12 fewer tubes arrived in 1911; see Locobase 13789.

Like the L-1s, this class remained in service until the late 1940s-early 1950s.


Class L-2 (Locobase 13789)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 35, p. 239. Works numbers were 36720-36721, 36747-36748 September 1911.

A further embellishment of the C & WC's Consolidations, these repeated the L-2s of 1910 (Locobase 13676) except for the deletion of 12 boiler tubes. Another difference was the addition of arch tubes, which contributed 31 sq ft (2.88 sq m) to the firebox heating surface area.

Like the L-1s, this class remained in service until the early 1950s. 288 and 291 were scrapped in November 1951 and 289-290 followed in February 1952


Class L-3 (Locobase 13677)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 41, p. 245. Works numbers were 38180-38181 in August 1912..

L-3 Consolidations were similar to the L-2s of 1910 that appear in Locobase 13676 with the major difference of arriving on the road with Schmidt superheaters already installed. Using the superheater also dictated the fitting of 12" piston valves. At the time, superheating the steam led locomotive superintendents to reduce steam pressure settings by 5-10%, as happened with this pair.

Like the L-1s and L-2s, the two L-3s remained in service until the early 1950s.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassLL-1L-1L-1-S/L-2-SL-2
Locobase ID7679 11168 13017 7680 11169
RailroadAlabama Midland (ACL)Atlantic Coast Line (ACL)Charleston & Western Carolina (ACL)Atlantic Coast Line (ACL)Atlantic Coast Line (ACL)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class143574
Road Numbers530-533/700-703, 704-713714-716277-281714-720717-720
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built143574
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoACLBaldwin
Year19011905190619051911
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase15.67'15.42'15.42'15.42'15.42'
Engine Wheelbase23.75'23.50'23.50'23.50'23.50'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)52.92'55.56'54.96'55.56'55.56'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)41740 lbs40150 lbs40150 lbs40150 lbs
Weight on Drivers146590 lbs151800 lbs146300 lbs151800 lbs152800 lbs
Engine Weight161230 lbs167500 lbs161000 lbs167500 lbs170800 lbs
Tender Light Weight120000 lbs106900 lbs120000 lbs106900 lbs120000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight281230 lbs274400 lbs281000 lbs274400 lbs290800 lbs
Tender Water Capacity5000 gals6000 gals6000 gals6000 gals6000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)11.5 tons15.5 tons tons15.5 tons15.5 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)61 lb/yard63 lb/yard61 lb/yard63 lb/yard64 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter56.50"56.50"56.50"56.50"56.50"
Boiler Pressure185 psi185 psi200 psi200 psi185 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)21" x 28"21" x 28"21" x 28"21" x 28"21" x 28"
Tractive Effort34367 lbs34367 lbs37153 lbs37153 lbs34367 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.27 4.42 3.94 4.09 4.45
Heating Ability
Firebox Area187 sq. ft187.30 sq. ft163.20 sq. ft187.30 sq. ft187.30 sq. ft
Grate Area33 sq. ft49 sq. ft49 sq. ft49 sq. ft49 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2533 sq. ft2533 sq. ft2495 sq. ft1753 sq. ft2533 sq. ft
Superheating Surface392 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2533 sq. ft2533 sq. ft2495 sq. ft2145 sq. ft2533 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume225.66225.66222.28156.17225.66
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation61059065980098009065
Same as above plus superheater percentage610590659800115649065
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area3459534651326404420334651
Power L1538253855555104325385
Power MT323.77312.83334.84606.02310.78

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassL-2L-2L-3
Locobase ID13676 13789 13677
RailroadCharleston & Western Carolina (ACL)Charleston & Western Carolina (ACL)Charleston & Western Carolina (ACL)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class642
Road Numbers282-287288-291292-293
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built642
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinBaldwin
Year191019111912
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase15.42'15.42'15.42'
Engine Wheelbase23.50'23.50'23.50'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.66 0.66 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)56.35'56.35'56.35'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)41800 lbs
Weight on Drivers150000 lbs150000 lbs150000 lbs
Engine Weight166000 lbs168000 lbs166000 lbs
Tender Light Weight120000 lbs120000 lbs120000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight286000 lbs288000 lbs286000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity6000 gals6000 gals6000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)15.5 tons tons10 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)63 lb/yard63 lb/yard63 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter56.50"56.50"56.50"
Boiler Pressure200 psi200 psi185 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)21" x 28"21" x 28"21" x 28"
Tractive Effort37153 lbs37153 lbs34367 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.04 4.04 4.36
Heating Ability
Firebox Area194.20 sq. ft194.20 sq. ft191.30 sq. ft
Grate Area49 sq. ft49 sq. ft49 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2495 sq. ft2407 sq. ft1999 sq. ft
Superheating Surface385 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2495 sq. ft2407 sq. ft2384 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume222.28214.44178.09
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation980098009065
Same as above plus superheater percentage9800980010515
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area388403884041053
Power L1581556689965
Power MT341.86333.22585.84

Photos

Reference


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