Cuban Central / Central Cabaiguan / Central Confluente / Central Cespedes / Central Caracas / Central Carmita / Central Constancia / Central Cupey 2-8-0 "Consolidation" Type Locomotives

Class Details by Steve Llanso

Class 015 (Locobase 13743)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 39, p. 182. Works number was 37063 in October 1910.

A ruling grade of 4 1/2% and curve radii down to 75 metres (15 deg) may have been a bit too much for the Baldwin that rolled onto the CC Rwy tracks in 1900 (Locobase 12443). So their next Baldwin Consolidation was a bit bigger and more powerful. Underlined in the specs was this demand: "Particular attention to be given to boiler design, boiler work, setting of tubes, &c."

Class 018 (Locobase 15017)

Data from Roy V Wright (Ed.) 1922 Locomotive Cyclopedia of American Practice, Sixth Edition (New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Company, 1922), p. 1010. Works number was 58746 in November 1919.

Small narrow-gauge, outside-frame Consolidation that would later be sold to the Mercedita Sugar Company. After the 1959 Revolucion and expropriation, the mill would be renamed for Augusto Cesar Sandino and the 018 renumbered 1404.

Class 02 (Locobase 12443)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 23, p. 128. Works number was 18387 in November 1900.

This single Consolidation was on the small side as 3-foot-gauge 2-8-0s went. The CCRwy's requirements posed some challenges including a ruling grade of 4 1/2% and curve radii down to 75 metres (15 deg).

Class 07 (Locobase 13746)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 54, p. 150. Works number was 42690 in December 1915.

This sugar-planter Consolidation later was sold to the Mercedita Sugar Company. Mercedita was renamed for Augusto Cesar Sandino after the 1959 Revolucion and nationalization and the 07 was renumbered 1382. It was known to still exist in 1995.

Class 1 (Locobase 14797)

Data from DeGolyer, Vol 63, pp. 381+. Works number was 53726 in September 1920.

This oil-burning plantation Consolidation must have been the first standard-gauge engine to run on the CC.

After the 1959 Revolucion, the CC was renamed as Central Ciudad Caracas. The 1 was still in "existence" in 1995.

Class 101 (Locobase 10979)

Data from Record of Recent Construction #64 (Baldwin Locomotive Works, 1908), p. 14-15. Works numbers were 26103, 26119 in July 1905; 26159 in August; 29616-29617 in November 1906; 33993 in November 1909; 35324-35326 in October 1910.

Supplied by Baldwin during the period it was delivering the 4-6-0s shown in Locobase 10981, these Consolidations had the same cylinder volume and a Belpaire boiler. Their drivers were smaller, of course, and they put more weight on them. The firebox sat inside the frame and was longer, so the grate was larger, but the firebox heating surface smaller.

In the 1910 specs, the railroad emphasized that the cab was to be roomy and comfortable with the roof raised 10 inches "...to allow men ample head room." And the roof was to extend 2 feet over the tender, most likely to shield the fireman from heat and rain. The windows opened on hinges and were covered with "strong teak louvres". All were concessions to the tropical heat and probably welcome.

Class 14 (Locobase 15349)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Vol 78, p. 28+. Works numbers were 58645-58646 in September 1925.

This particular Baldwin oil-burning plantation Consolidation design might as well have been called the Central Caracas. Certainly the Cuban sugar central was a loyal customer over a long period. The first had arrived in 1894 (Locobase 12128), the second and third only slightly different in 1911-1912 (Locobase 13725), and this third pair, also numbered 14 & 15.

Changes were more evident in this update as the tender grew considerably, boiler pressure increased by 20%, both adhesion and engine weights grew, and the valves were now actuated by outside radial valve gear. A note in the specifications advises "Increased boiler pressure to 180 pounds will necessitate slightly increased frame section , rods, pins and main axle. Main axle to be 6" x 6" instead of 5 1/2" x 6""

14's history may have been confined to serving the CC. The 15, however, was sold to the Central Andrieta. After the 1959 Revolucion and expropriation the CA was renamed Central Mal Tiempo and the 15 renumbered 1238.

Class 3 (Locobase 14794)

Data from DeGolyer, Vol 63, pp. 374+. Works number was 53884 in October 1920 and 57021

Originally ordered by the Central Cabaiguan in 1920, this oil-burning plantation Consolidation was sold two years later by the West India Sugar Finance Company. The WISFC assigned it to the Central Cupey.

Its later career included operations on the Central Altos Cedro and the Central Maceo. When the latter was nationalized after the 1959 Revolucion, the 3 was renumbered 1681.

Class 3 (Locobase 14893)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 64, pp. 230. Works numbers were 53633 and 53654 in September 1920.

A set of oil-burning plantation Consolidations, this pair served a sugar central at Encrucijada in Santa Clara Province. The specification required that "Details to be arranged so that Loco. can be readily changed to burn coal fuel. Holes for grate work to be drilled in frame so that railway company may apply rigging when engine is changed for burning coal."

The 3 and 4 were sold to the Garcia Beltran Company before 1932 and were rebuilt it to the 3-foot gauge. The 3 was later sold it to the Central San Jose. After the 1959 Revolucion and nationalization, the CSJ was renamed "Central Hermanos Ameijeiras" and the 3 renumbered to 1323.

Class 35 (Locobase 13745)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 54, p. 150. See also Oscar Zanetti Lecuona, Alejandro Garcia Alvarez, Sugar & railroads: a Cuban history, 1837-1959 (U of North Carolina Press, 1998 (translation)). Works numbers were 44285-44286 in October 1916.

Sugar plantations often bought a design off the rack and the smallest-gauge portion of the CC Rwy found this Ten-wheeler in the catalogue. One custom detail concerned the placement of the tank on the tender frame: "Tank to be moved back on frame to make more room for the fireman."

Both were later sold to the Central Caracas (of Cuba) and the 36 continued on to serve the Central Soledad.

The opening of the eastern provinces to sugar during this period, by the way, elicits this sardonic comment from Zanetti and Garcia, who said (p. 231) that the FC Central "...brought civilization to the eastern regions of Cuba--only, in this case, 'civilization' took the form of a gigantic imperialist plantation."

Class 4 (Locobase 14914)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Vol 64, pp. 325. Works number was 54251 in January 1921.

This plantation Consolidation was originally ordered for the lightly built Central Alquizar, which had 25 lb/yard (12.5 kg/metre) rail, tight curve radii of 112 ft (34.1 metres), and grades of 0.5%. The order was redirected to the Central Caracas before delivery.

Class 4 (Locobase 14429)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 54, pp.141+ and Vol 64, pp. 240. Works number was 45829 in June 1917 and 54485 in January 1921.

Plantation Consolidation ordered for the CF, which operated 27 km (16.8 miles) of sugar road in Orient. Three and a half years later, the CF ordered a duplicate that differed in two relatively minor ways: the engine's adhesion weight had risen to 43,600 lb (19,777 kg), but the truck's weight dropped such that total engine weight came to 47,700 lb (21,636 kg). The tender's water capacity also increased by 100 US gallons (388 litres). Empty weight registered 12,500 lb (5,670 kg) and loaded weight rose to 28,500 lb (12,927 kg).

The system was laid down at the turn into the 20th Century and remained in operation until 1941.

Class 4 (Locobase 14932)

Data from DeGolyer, Vol 64 pp. 413+. Works number was 57021 in September 1923.

Locobase 14794 shows an identical plantation Consolidation oil-burner that was sold to the Central Cupey by December 1923, three years after delivery. A notable difference between the two was the 4's larger tender. As with many plantation oil burners, the 4's specification states that the details were to be "arranged so locos can be readily changed to burn coal fuel."

The 4 would later be sold to the Central Altos Cedro, presumably at the same time as the 3.

Class 5 (Locobase 14798)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Vol 63, p. 383. Works number was 53657 in September 1920.

One of the larger types of plantation Consolidations, this oil-burner served a Central constructed in Camaguey Province.

Class 6 (Locobase 14826)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Vol 64, p. 56 and p. 135 and Vol 78, pp. 32+. Works numbers were 54021 in November 1920 and 54225 in December. A third one built to the same design was works number 58781 in October 1925.

Both oil-burning plantation Consolidations were built at around the same time but came by different routes to this mill. The 6 (to be renumbered 8) was ordered in May 1920. The 7 originally was one of a pair ordered by the Central Mascota in June 1920. For whatever reason, both Mascotas were resold to other buyers.

The Central Cespedes sold the 7 to Central Soledad, which was renamed for Julio Reyes Cairo after the 1959 Revolucion and expropriation. At that point, the 7 was renumbered 1646.

Gene Connelly's Baldwin production list does not record what became of 8.

Class 8 (Locobase 15246)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Vol 72, pp. 4+. Works number was 57403 in October 1923.

This oil-burning plantation Consolidation was originally built by Baldwin to carry as stock in the reasonable expectation that it would soon find a home. And it did--the CC bought the engine within months of its production, thus adding to the large number of Cuban sugar centrals that operated this particular standard-gauge design. Like many other sugar-cane oil burners, this engine was to be able to be "readily changed to burn coal."

After the 1959 Revolucion and expropriation, the CC was renamed for Luis Arcos Bergnes and the 8 was renumbered 1622.

Class Chenonceau (Locobase 12128)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Vol 19, p. 156. See also Humphrey J Kiely, "Notes on the Sugar Industry in Cuba," Scientific American (18 February 1893), pp. 104-105. Works number was 14123 in September 1894.

At the time this little Consolidation was ordered, the Central Caracas was being described as "probably the finest estate" on the island, also known as the "Pearl of the Antilles". Kiely touted the investment opportunities that awaited the savvy American manufacturer of up-to-date sugar-processing machinery. His report contains no mention of Spain's position as colonial master nor of the revolutionary fervor that soon would lead to revolt, a US invasion, and the reorientation of a "free" Cuba as a quasi-colony of the United States.

Class Nathalie (Locobase 12051)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 18, p. 105. Works numbers were 13135-13136 in January 1893.

Class Silvia (Locobase 13502)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 33, p. 13. Works numbers were 34048 in November 1909 and 34150 in January 1910.

Silvia's older sister Teresa (Locobase 11513) had arrived on the Central Caracas sugar road in 1904 and been assigned number 11. When the CC went back to Baldwin for the next little Consolidation, broker Emilio Terry chose a somewhat larger boiler that was already in service on the Central Andreita (Locobase 12832). Except for a few tweaks, most notably more adhesion weight, the two engines were essentially identical. Silvia's batch mate L. Falla Gutierrez arrived 2 months later in 1910.

Class Teresa (Locobase 13725)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Vol 36, p. 192 and Vol 44, p. 308. Works numbers were 35459 in October 1910 and 38663 in November 1912.

Some 15 years and 20,000+ builders numbers after its purchase of a small, skinny-gauge Consolidation from Baldwin (Locobase 12128), the Central Caracas returned for a second engine. Other than a small increase in boiler pressure, the biggest difference was in the 14's weight gain of over 3 tons. (Locobase has noticed that repeated designs of almost any vehicle or ship seem to gain weight.) Two years later, the 15 repeated most of the particulars, but added 4,000 lb (1814 kg) to the adhesion weight and 2,000 lb (907 kg) to total engine weight.

Some time later, the Teresa went to the Central Soledad. The unnamed 15 apparently remained with the FC de Caracas.

Class Theresa (Locobase 11513)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines, 1903, as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 26, p. 204. works number was 23586 in January 1904. See also the US War Department, Military Notes on Cuba (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1909), p. 78.

This sugar-cane railway also was known as the Ciudad Caracas. Located near Santa Isabel de las Lajas, by 1909 the CC boasted 111 narrow-gauge miles, 12 locomotives, 4 passenger cars, 300 cane cars and 150 small iron cane cars.

The little consolidation was coal-fired.

Class Tomas Terry (Locobase 11527)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines, 1903, as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 26, p. 167. Works number 23282 in November 1903.

Of the two Consolidations built by Baldwin for the FC de Caracas in 1903, this was much the bigger. Perhaps it was too big for such a modest railroad as it was soon sent along to the Central Andreita and later was sold to the Mal Tiempo(located north of Cienfuegos in the center of the island) as their 1322.


Specifications by Steve Llanso
Class01501802071101143335444568ChenonceauNathalieSilviaTeresaTheresaTomas Terry
Locobase ID13743 15017 12443 13746 14797 10979 15349 14794 14893 13745 14914 14429 14932 14798 14826 15246 12128 12051 13502 13725 11513 11527
RailroadCuban CentralCuban CentralCuban CentralCuban CentralCentral CaracasCuban CentralCentral CaracasCentral CabaiguanCentral ConstanciaCuban CentralCentral CaracasCentral ConfluenteCentral CupeyCentral CespedesCentral CespedesCentral CarmitaCentral CaracasCentral CaracasCentral CaracasCentral CaracasCentral CaracasCentral Caracas
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Road Numbers015018 / 14040207 / 13821101-10914-15 / 12383 / 16813-4 / 132335-3644, 6456-8 / 16468 / 162211-1214-15114
Gauge3'3'3'3'StdStd2'6""Std2'6""2'6""2'6""2'6""StdStdStdStd2'6""2'6""2'6""2'6""2'6""2'6""
BuilderBaldwinAlco-CookeBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinBaldwinBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinBaldwinBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & Co
Year1911191919001915192019051925192019201916192119171923192019201923189418931909191119041903
Valve GearStephensonSteph/WalschStephensonStephensonWalschaertStephensonWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertStephensonWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase10.58'10.92' 9.83' 9.83'14.25'14.67'11.25'14.25' 9.83'11.42'9'9'14.25'14.50'14.25'14.50'11.42'11.42'11.60'11.42'11.42' 9.83'
Engine Wheelbase18.08'18.42'17.17'17.08'21.58'22'17.17'21.58'17.17'17.17'15.50'15.50'21.58'22'21.58'22'17.17'17.17'17.17'17.17'17.17'17.17'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.59 0.59 0.57 0.58 0.66 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.57 0.67 0.58 0.58 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.67 0.67 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.57
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)45'41.33'48.92'47'40.25'51.29'42.54'37.75'39.11'32.92'51.33'51.62'51.25'51.62'37'37'37'40.29'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers70000 lbs89000 lbs55000 lbs63000 lbs108000 lbs101710 lbs54000 lbs106000 lbs66000 lbs44000 lbs47000 lbs42000 lbs108000 lbs120000 lbs108000 lbs119300 lbs43000 lbs36000 lbs44000 lbs49000 lbs36000 lbs62000 lbs
Engine Weight79000 lbs97000 lbs63000 lbs71000 lbs121000 lbs115210 lbs60000 lbs120000 lbs73000 lbs50000 lbs51000 lbs48000 lbs121000 lbs133000 lbs121000 lbs132000 lbs50000 lbs42000 lbs50000 lbs56000 lbs42000 lbs70000 lbs
Tender Light Weight52000 lbs32000 lbs30000 lbs90500 lbs70290 lbs47300 lbs101000 lbs40000 lbs24000 lbs41500 lbs26000 lbs114000 lbs100000 lbs114000 lbs112500 lbs28000 lbs24000 lbs24000 lbs24000 lbs40000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight131000 lbs95000 lbs101000 lbs211500 lbs185500 lbs107300 lbs221000 lbs113000 lbs74000 lbs92500 lbs74000 lbs235000 lbs233000 lbs235000 lbs244500 lbs78000 lbs74000 lbs80000 lbs66000 lbs110000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity2600 gals1500 gals1500 gals4000 gals3500 gals2000 gals4500 gals2000 gals1200 gals1800 gals1100 gals5000 gals5000 gals5000 gals5000 gals1200 gals1200 gals1200 gals1200 gals1200 gals1800 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)5 tons tons tons3 tons2000 gals5.6 tons1200 gals2200 gals1000 gals3 tons4 tons1.5 tons2500 gals2500 gals2500 gals2500 gals gals gals gals gals gals gals
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run29 lb/yard37 lb/yard23 lb/yard26 lb/yard45 lb/yard42 lb/yard23 lb/yard44 lb/yard28 lb/yard18 lb/yard20 lb/yard18 lb/yard45 lb/yard50 lb/yard45 lb/yard50 lb/yard18 lb/yard15 lb/yard18 lb/yard20 lb/yard15 lb/yard26 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter38"38"36"36"44"50"36"44"36"36"33"33"44"50"44"50"36"36"36"36"36"36"
Boiler Pressure160 psi160 psi150 psi150 psi170 psi180 psi180 psi170 psi160 psi150 psi180 psi165 psi170 psi170 psi170 psi170 psi135 psi130 psi150 psi150 psi140 psi160 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)16" x 20"16" x 20"14" x 20"14" x 20"18" x 24"18" x 24"13" x 18"18" x 24"14" x 20"12" x 18"12" x 16" (1)12" x 16" (1)18" x 24"20" x 24"18" x 24"20" x 24"13" x 18"12" x 18"12" x 18"13" x 18"12" x 18"14" x 20"
Tractive Effort18324 lbs18324 lbs13883 lbs13883 lbs25537 lbs23795 lbs12929 lbs25537 lbs14809 lbs9180 lbs5341 lbs4896 lbs25537 lbs27744 lbs25537 lbs27744 lbs9696 lbs7956 lbs9180 lbs10774 lbs8568 lbs14809 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.82 4.86 3.96 4.54 4.23 4.27 4.18 4.15 4.46 4.79 8.80 8.58 4.23 4.33 4.23 4.30 4.43 4.52 4.79 4.55 4.20 4.19
Heating Ability
Firebox Area70 sq. ft93.40 sq. ft52.50 sq. ft63 sq. ft133 sq. ft103 sq. ft58 sq. ft133 sq. ft59 sq. ft52 sq. ft42 sq. ft43 sq. ft133 sq. ft144 sq. ft133 sq. ft144 sq. ft59 sq. ft42 sq. ft52.08 sq. ft57 sq. ft42 sq. ft60 sq. ft
Grate Area15.90 sq. ft16.70 sq. ft10.90 sq. ft11 sq. ft27.80 sq. ft23.25 sq. ft 9.07 sq. ft27.80 sq. ft12.30 sq. ft 9.10 sq. ft 9.20 sq. ft 9.20 sq. ft27.80 sq. ft30.30 sq. ft27.80 sq. ft30.30 sq. ft 9.20 sq. ft 9.10 sq. ft 9.33 sq. ft 9.10 sq. ft 9.10 sq. ft11 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1163 sq. ft1398 sq. ft870 sq. ft915 sq. ft1533 sq. ft1402 sq. ft553 sq. ft1533 sq. ft890 sq. ft425 sq. ft590 sq. ft591 sq. ft1533 sq. ft1774 sq. ft1533 sq. ft1774 sq. ft558 sq. ft369 sq. ft425 sq. ft552 sq. ft369 sq. ft905 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1163 sq. ft1398 sq. ft870 sq. ft915 sq. ft1533 sq. ft1402 sq. ft553 sq. ft1533 sq. ft890 sq. ft425 sq. ft590 sq. ft591 sq. ft1533 sq. ft1774 sq. ft1533 sq. ft1774 sq. ft558 sq. ft369 sq. ft425 sq. ft552 sq. ft369 sq. ft905 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume249.88300.37244.15256.78216.88198.34199.98216.88249.76180.38563.41564.36216.88203.29216.88203.29201.79156.61180.38199.62156.61253.97
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation2544267216351650472641851633472619681365165615184726515147265151124211831400136512741760
Same as above plus superheater percentage2544267216351650472641851633472619681365165615184726515147265151124211831400136512741760
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area11200149447875945022610185401044022610944078007560709522610244802261024480796554607812855058809600
Power L13294406128603107387740683292387731922617756369853877404938774049249919172618272420643246
Power MT414.97402.38458.56434.91316.57352.70537.60322.54426.49524.501419.021466.60316.57297.55316.57299.30512.50469.58524.70490.24505.59461.69

Credits

Introduction and roster provided by Richard Duley. Class details and specifications provided by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media.