A ruling grade of 4 1/2% and curve radii down to 75 metres (15 deg) may have been a bit too much for the Baldwin that rolled onto the CC Rwy tracks in 1900 (Locobase 12443). So their next Baldwin Consolidation was a bit bigger and more powerful. Underlined in the specs was this demand: "Particular attention to be given to boiler design, boiler work, setting of tubes, &c."

Small narrow-gauge, outside-frame Consolidation that would later be sold to the Mercedita Sugar Company. After the 1959 Revolucion and expropriation, the mill would be renamed for Augusto Cesar Sandino and the 018 renumbered 1404.

This single Consolidation was on the small side as 3-foot-gauge 2-8-0s went. The CCRwy's requirements posed some challenges including a ruling grade of 4 1/2% and curve radii down to 75 metres (15 deg).

This sugar-planter Consolidation later was sold to the Mercedita Sugar Company. Mercedita was renamed for Augusto Cesar Sandino after the 1959 Revolucion and nationalization and the 07 was renumbered 1382. It was known to still exist in 1995.

This oil-burning plantation Consolidation must have been the first standard-gauge engine to run on the CC.

After the 1959 Revolucion, the CC was renamed as Central Ciudad Caracas. The 1 was still in "existence" in 1995.

Supplied by Baldwin during the period it was delivering the 4-6-0s shown in Locobase 10981, these Consolidations had the same cylinder volume and a Belpaire boiler. Their drivers were smaller, of course, and they put more weight on them. The firebox sat inside the frame and was longer, so the grate was larger, but the firebox heating surface smaller.

In the 1910 specs, the railroad emphasized that the cab was to be roomy and comfortable with the roof raised 10 inches "...to allow men ample head room." And the roof was to extend 2 feet over the tender, most likely to shield the fireman from heat and rain. The windows opened on hinges and were covered with "strong teak louvres". All were concessions to the tropical heat and probably welcome.

This particular Baldwin oil-burning plantation Consolidation design might as well have been called the Central Caracas. Certainly the Cuban sugar central was a loyal customer over a long period. The first had arrived in 1894 (Locobase 12128), the second and third only slightly different in 1911-1912 (Locobase 13725), and this third pair, also numbered 14 & 15.

Changes were more evident in this update as the tender grew considerably, boiler pressure increased by 20%, both adhesion and engine weights grew, and the valves were now actuated by outside radial valve gear. A note in the specifications advises "Increased boiler pressure to 180 pounds will necessitate slightly increased frame section , rods, pins and main axle. Main axle to be 6" x 6" instead of 5 1/2" x 6""

14's history may have been confined to serving the CC. The 15, however, was sold to the Central Andrieta. After the 1959 Revolucion and expropriation the CA was renamed Central Mal Tiempo and the 15 renumbered 1238.

Originally ordered by the Central Cabaiguan in 1920, this oil-burning plantation Consolidation was sold two years later by the West India Sugar Finance Company. The WISFC assigned it to the Central Cupey.

Its later career included operations on the Central Altos Cedro and the Central Maceo. When the latter was nationalized after the 1959 Revolucion, the 3 was renumbered 1681.

A set of oil-burning plantation Consolidations, this pair served a sugar central at Encrucijada in Santa Clara Province. The specification required that "Details to be arranged so that Loco. can be readily changed to burn coal fuel. Holes for grate work to be drilled in frame so that railway company may apply rigging when engine is changed for burning coal."

The 3 and 4 were sold to the Garcia Beltran Company before 1932 and were rebuilt it to the 3-foot gauge. The 3 was later sold it to the Central San Jose. After the 1959 Revolucion and nationalization, the CSJ was renamed "Central Hermanos Ameijeiras" and the 3 renumbered to 1323.

Sugar plantations often bought a design off the rack and the smallest-gauge portion of the CC Rwy found this Ten-wheeler in the catalogue. One custom detail concerned the placement of the tank on the tender frame: "Tank to be moved back on frame to make more room for the fireman."

Both were later sold to the Central Caracas (of Cuba) and the 36 continued on to serve the Central Soledad.

The opening of the eastern provinces to sugar during this period, by the way, elicits this sardonic comment from Zanetti and Garcia, who said (p. 231) that the FC Central "...brought civilization to the eastern regions of Cuba--only, in this case, 'civilization' took the form of a gigantic imperialist plantation."

This plantation Consolidation was originally ordered for the lightly built Central Alquizar, which had 25 lb/yard (12.5 kg/metre) rail, tight curve radii of 112 ft (34.1 metres), and grades of 0.5%. The order was redirected to the Central Caracas before delivery.

Plantation Consolidation ordered for the CF, which operated 27 km (16.8 miles) of sugar road in Orient. Three and a half years later, the CF ordered a duplicate that differed in two relatively minor ways: the engine's adhesion weight had risen to 43,600 lb (19,777 kg), but the truck's weight dropped such that total engine weight came to 47,700 lb (21,636 kg). The tender's water capacity also increased by 100 US gallons (388 litres). Empty weight registered 12,500 lb (5,670 kg) and loaded weight rose to 28,500 lb (12,927 kg).

The system was laid down at the turn into the 20th Century and remained in operation until 1941.

Locobase 14794 shows an identical plantation Consolidation oil-burner that was sold to the Central Cupey by December 1923, three years after delivery. A notable difference between the two was the 4's larger tender. As with many plantation oil burners, the 4's specification states that the details were to be "arranged so locos can be readily changed to burn coal fuel."

The 4 would later be sold to the Central Altos Cedro, presumably at the same time as the 3.

One of the larger types of plantation Consolidations, this oil-burner served a Central constructed in Camaguey Province.

Both oil-burning plantation Consolidations were built at around the same time but came by different routes to this mill. The 6 (to be renumbered 8) was ordered in May 1920. The 7 originally was one of a pair ordered by the Central Mascota in June 1920. For whatever reason, both Mascotas were resold to other buyers.

The Central Cespedes sold the 7 to Central Soledad, which was renamed for Julio Reyes Cairo after the 1959 Revolucion and expropriation. At that point, the 7 was renumbered 1646.

Gene Connelly's Baldwin production list does not record what became of 8.

This oil-burning plantation Consolidation was originally built by Baldwin to carry as stock in the reasonable expectation that it would soon find a home. And it did--the CC bought the engine within months of its production, thus adding to the large number of Cuban sugar centrals that operated this particular standard-gauge design. Like many other sugar-cane oil burners, this engine was to be able to be "readily changed to burn coal."

After the 1959 Revolucion and expropriation, the CC was renamed for Luis Arcos Bergnes and the 8 was renumbered 1622.

At the time this little Consolidation was ordered, the Central Caracas was being described as "probably the finest estate" on the island, also known as the "Pearl of the Antilles". Kiely touted the investment opportunities that awaited the savvy American manufacturer of up-to-date sugar-processing machinery. His report contains no mention of Spain's position as colonial master nor of the revolutionary fervor that soon would lead to revolt, a US invasion, and the reorientation of a "free" Cuba as a quasi-colony of the United States.

Silvia's older sister Teresa (Locobase 11513) had arrived on the Central Caracas sugar road in 1904 and been assigned number 11. When the CC went back to Baldwin for the next little Consolidation, broker Emilio Terry chose a somewhat larger boiler that was already in service on the Central Andreita (Locobase 12832). Except for a few tweaks, most notably more adhesion weight, the two engines were essentially identical. Silvia's batch mate L. Falla Gutierrez arrived 2 months later in 1910.

Some 15 years and 20,000+ builders numbers after its purchase of a small, skinny-gauge Consolidation from Baldwin (Locobase 12128), the Central Caracas returned for a second engine. Other than a small increase in boiler pressure, the biggest difference was in the 14's weight gain of over 3 tons. (Locobase has noticed that repeated designs of almost any vehicle or ship seem to gain weight.) Two years later, the 15 repeated most of the particulars, but added 4,000 lb (1814 kg) to the adhesion weight and 2,000 lb (907 kg) to total engine weight.

Some time later, the Teresa went to the Central Soledad. The unnamed 15 apparently remained with the FC de Caracas.

This sugar-cane railway also was known as the Ciudad Caracas. Located near Santa Isabel de las Lajas, by 1909 the CC boasted 111 narrow-gauge miles, 12 locomotives, 4 passenger cars, 300 cane cars and 150 small iron cane cars.

The little consolidation was coal-fired.

Of the two Consolidations built by Baldwin for the FC de Caracas in 1903, this was much the bigger. Perhaps it was too big for such a modest railroad as it was soon sent along to the Central Andreita and later was sold to the Mal Tiempo(located north of Cienfuegos in the center of the island) as their 1322.

Specifications by Steve Llanso | ||||||||||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | 015 | 018 | 02 | 07 | 1 | 101 | 14 | 3 | 3 | 35 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 8 | Chenonceau | Nathalie | Silvia | Teresa | Theresa | Tomas Terry |

Locobase ID | 13743 | 15017 | 12443 | 13746 | 14797 | 10979 | 15349 | 14794 | 14893 | 13745 | 14914 | 14429 | 14932 | 14798 | 14826 | 15246 | 12128 | 12051 | 13502 | 13725 | 11513 | 11527 |

Railroad | Cuban Central | Cuban Central | Cuban Central | Cuban Central | Central Caracas | Cuban Central | Central Caracas | Central Cabaiguan | Central Constancia | Cuban Central | Central Caracas | Central Confluente | Central Cupey | Central Cespedes | Central Cespedes | Central Carmita | Central Caracas | Central Caracas | Central Caracas | Central Caracas | Central Caracas | Central Caracas |

Whyte | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 | 2-8-0 |

Road Numbers | 015 | 018 / 1404 | 02 | 07 / 1382 | 1 | 101-109 | 14-15 / 1238 | 3 / 1681 | 3-4 / 1323 | 35-36 | 4 | 4, 6 | 4 | 5 | 6-8 / 1646 | 8 / 1622 | 11-12 | 14-15 | 11 | 4 | ||

Gauge | 3' | 3' | 3' | 3' | Std | Std | 2'6"" | Std | 2'6"" | 2'6"" | 2'6"" | 2'6"" | Std | Std | Std | Std | 2'6"" | 2'6"" | 2'6"" | 2'6"" | 2'6"" | 2'6"" |

Builder | Baldwin | Alco-Cooke | Burnham, Williams & Co | Baldwin | Baldwin | Burnham, Williams & Co | Baldwin | Baldwin | Baldwin | Baldwin | Baldwin | Baldwin | Baldwin | Baldwin | Baldwin | Baldwin | Burnham, Williams & Co | Burnham, Williams & Co | Baldwin | Baldwin | Burnham, Williams & Co | Burnham, Williams & Co |

Year | 1911 | 1919 | 1900 | 1915 | 1920 | 1905 | 1925 | 1920 | 1920 | 1916 | 1921 | 1917 | 1923 | 1920 | 1920 | 1923 | 1894 | 1893 | 1909 | 1911 | 1904 | 1903 |

Valve Gear | Stephenson | Steph/Walsch | Stephenson | Stephenson | Walschaert | Stephenson | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Stephenson | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson | Stephenson |

Locomotive Length and Weight | ||||||||||||||||||||||

Driver Wheelbase | 10.58' | 10.92' | 9.83' | 9.83' | 14.25' | 14.67' | 11.25' | 14.25' | 9.83' | 11.42' | 9' | 9' | 14.25' | 14.50' | 14.25' | 14.50' | 11.42' | 11.42' | 11.60' | 11.42' | 11.42' | 9.83' |

Engine Wheelbase | 18.08' | 18.42' | 17.17' | 17.08' | 21.58' | 22' | 17.17' | 21.58' | 17.17' | 17.17' | 15.50' | 15.50' | 21.58' | 22' | 21.58' | 22' | 17.17' | 17.17' | 17.17' | 17.17' | 17.17' | 17.17' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.59 | 0.59 | 0.57 | 0.58 | 0.66 | 0.67 | 0.66 | 0.66 | 0.57 | 0.67 | 0.58 | 0.58 | 0.66 | 0.66 | 0.66 | 0.66 | 0.67 | 0.67 | 0.68 | 0.67 | 0.67 | 0.57 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 45' | 41.33' | 48.92' | 47' | 40.25' | 51.29' | 42.54' | 37.75' | 39.11' | 32.92' | 51.33' | 51.62' | 51.25' | 51.62' | 37' | 37' | 37' | 40.29' | ||||

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | ||||||||||||||||||||||

Weight on Drivers | 70000 lbs | 89000 lbs | 55000 lbs | 63000 lbs | 108000 lbs | 101710 lbs | 54000 lbs | 106000 lbs | 66000 lbs | 44000 lbs | 47000 lbs | 42000 lbs | 108000 lbs | 120000 lbs | 108000 lbs | 119300 lbs | 43000 lbs | 36000 lbs | 44000 lbs | 49000 lbs | 36000 lbs | 62000 lbs |

Engine Weight | 79000 lbs | 97000 lbs | 63000 lbs | 71000 lbs | 121000 lbs | 115210 lbs | 60000 lbs | 120000 lbs | 73000 lbs | 50000 lbs | 51000 lbs | 48000 lbs | 121000 lbs | 133000 lbs | 121000 lbs | 132000 lbs | 50000 lbs | 42000 lbs | 50000 lbs | 56000 lbs | 42000 lbs | 70000 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 52000 lbs | 32000 lbs | 30000 lbs | 90500 lbs | 70290 lbs | 47300 lbs | 101000 lbs | 40000 lbs | 24000 lbs | 41500 lbs | 26000 lbs | 114000 lbs | 100000 lbs | 114000 lbs | 112500 lbs | 28000 lbs | 24000 lbs | 24000 lbs | 24000 lbs | 40000 lbs | ||

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 131000 lbs | 95000 lbs | 101000 lbs | 211500 lbs | 185500 lbs | 107300 lbs | 221000 lbs | 113000 lbs | 74000 lbs | 92500 lbs | 74000 lbs | 235000 lbs | 233000 lbs | 235000 lbs | 244500 lbs | 78000 lbs | 74000 lbs | 80000 lbs | 66000 lbs | 110000 lbs | ||

Tender Water Capacity | 2600 gals | 1500 gals | 1500 gals | 4000 gals | 3500 gals | 2000 gals | 4500 gals | 2000 gals | 1200 gals | 1800 gals | 1100 gals | 5000 gals | 5000 gals | 5000 gals | 5000 gals | 1200 gals | 1200 gals | 1200 gals | 1200 gals | 1200 gals | 1800 gals | |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 5 tons | tons | tons | 3 tons | 2000 gals | 5.6 tons | 1200 gals | 2200 gals | 1000 gals | 3 tons | 4 tons | 1.5 tons | 2500 gals | 2500 gals | 2500 gals | 2500 gals | gals | gals | gals | gals | gals | gals |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run | 29 lb/yard | 37 lb/yard | 23 lb/yard | 26 lb/yard | 45 lb/yard | 42 lb/yard | 23 lb/yard | 44 lb/yard | 28 lb/yard | 18 lb/yard | 20 lb/yard | 18 lb/yard | 45 lb/yard | 50 lb/yard | 45 lb/yard | 50 lb/yard | 18 lb/yard | 15 lb/yard | 18 lb/yard | 20 lb/yard | 15 lb/yard | 26 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | ||||||||||||||||||||||

Driver Diameter | 38" | 38" | 36" | 36" | 44" | 50" | 36" | 44" | 36" | 36" | 33" | 33" | 44" | 50" | 44" | 50" | 36" | 36" | 36" | 36" | 36" | 36" |

Boiler Pressure | 160 psi | 160 psi | 150 psi | 150 psi | 170 psi | 180 psi | 180 psi | 170 psi | 160 psi | 150 psi | 180 psi | 165 psi | 170 psi | 170 psi | 170 psi | 170 psi | 135 psi | 130 psi | 150 psi | 150 psi | 140 psi | 160 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 16" x 20" | 16" x 20" | 14" x 20" | 14" x 20" | 18" x 24" | 18" x 24" | 13" x 18" | 18" x 24" | 14" x 20" | 12" x 18" | 12" x 16" (1) | 12" x 16" (1) | 18" x 24" | 20" x 24" | 18" x 24" | 20" x 24" | 13" x 18" | 12" x 18" | 12" x 18" | 13" x 18" | 12" x 18" | 14" x 20" |

Tractive Effort | 18324 lbs | 18324 lbs | 13883 lbs | 13883 lbs | 25537 lbs | 23795 lbs | 12929 lbs | 25537 lbs | 14809 lbs | 9180 lbs | 5341 lbs | 4896 lbs | 25537 lbs | 27744 lbs | 25537 lbs | 27744 lbs | 9696 lbs | 7956 lbs | 9180 lbs | 10774 lbs | 8568 lbs | 14809 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 3.82 | 4.86 | 3.96 | 4.54 | 4.23 | 4.27 | 4.18 | 4.15 | 4.46 | 4.79 | 8.80 | 8.58 | 4.23 | 4.33 | 4.23 | 4.30 | 4.43 | 4.52 | 4.79 | 4.55 | 4.20 | 4.19 |

Heating Ability | ||||||||||||||||||||||

Firebox Area | 70 sq. ft | 93.40 sq. ft | 52.50 sq. ft | 63 sq. ft | 133 sq. ft | 103 sq. ft | 58 sq. ft | 133 sq. ft | 59 sq. ft | 52 sq. ft | 42 sq. ft | 43 sq. ft | 133 sq. ft | 144 sq. ft | 133 sq. ft | 144 sq. ft | 59 sq. ft | 42 sq. ft | 52.08 sq. ft | 57 sq. ft | 42 sq. ft | 60 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 15.90 sq. ft | 16.70 sq. ft | 10.90 sq. ft | 11 sq. ft | 27.80 sq. ft | 23.25 sq. ft | 9.07 sq. ft | 27.80 sq. ft | 12.30 sq. ft | 9.10 sq. ft | 9.20 sq. ft | 9.20 sq. ft | 27.80 sq. ft | 30.30 sq. ft | 27.80 sq. ft | 30.30 sq. ft | 9.20 sq. ft | 9.10 sq. ft | 9.33 sq. ft | 9.10 sq. ft | 9.10 sq. ft | 11 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 1163 sq. ft | 1398 sq. ft | 870 sq. ft | 915 sq. ft | 1533 sq. ft | 1402 sq. ft | 553 sq. ft | 1533 sq. ft | 890 sq. ft | 425 sq. ft | 590 sq. ft | 591 sq. ft | 1533 sq. ft | 1774 sq. ft | 1533 sq. ft | 1774 sq. ft | 558 sq. ft | 369 sq. ft | 425 sq. ft | 552 sq. ft | 369 sq. ft | 905 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | ||||||||||||||||||||||

Combined Heating Surface | 1163 sq. ft | 1398 sq. ft | 870 sq. ft | 915 sq. ft | 1533 sq. ft | 1402 sq. ft | 553 sq. ft | 1533 sq. ft | 890 sq. ft | 425 sq. ft | 590 sq. ft | 591 sq. ft | 1533 sq. ft | 1774 sq. ft | 1533 sq. ft | 1774 sq. ft | 558 sq. ft | 369 sq. ft | 425 sq. ft | 552 sq. ft | 369 sq. ft | 905 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 249.88 | 300.37 | 244.15 | 256.78 | 216.88 | 198.34 | 199.98 | 216.88 | 249.76 | 180.38 | 563.41 | 564.36 | 216.88 | 203.29 | 216.88 | 203.29 | 201.79 | 156.61 | 180.38 | 199.62 | 156.61 | 253.97 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | ||||||||||||||||||||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 2544 | 2672 | 1635 | 1650 | 4726 | 4185 | 1633 | 4726 | 1968 | 1365 | 1656 | 1518 | 4726 | 5151 | 4726 | 5151 | 1242 | 1183 | 1400 | 1365 | 1274 | 1760 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 2544 | 2672 | 1635 | 1650 | 4726 | 4185 | 1633 | 4726 | 1968 | 1365 | 1656 | 1518 | 4726 | 5151 | 4726 | 5151 | 1242 | 1183 | 1400 | 1365 | 1274 | 1760 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 11200 | 14944 | 7875 | 9450 | 22610 | 18540 | 10440 | 22610 | 9440 | 7800 | 7560 | 7095 | 22610 | 24480 | 22610 | 24480 | 7965 | 5460 | 7812 | 8550 | 5880 | 9600 |

Power L1 | 3294 | 4061 | 2860 | 3107 | 3877 | 4068 | 3292 | 3877 | 3192 | 2617 | 7563 | 6985 | 3877 | 4049 | 3877 | 4049 | 2499 | 1917 | 2618 | 2724 | 2064 | 3246 |

Power MT | 414.97 | 402.38 | 458.56 | 434.91 | 316.57 | 352.70 | 537.60 | 322.54 | 426.49 | 524.50 | 1419.02 | 1466.60 | 316.57 | 297.55 | 316.57 | 299.30 | 512.50 | 469.58 | 524.70 | 490.24 | 505.59 | 461.69 |