Gulf & Ship Island / Illinois Central 2-8-0 "Consolidation" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 19 (Locobase 12419)

Data from the locomotive diagram published on Vernon Beck's website -- http://home.earthlink.net/~vnlbeck/D/d6512.tif (accessed 22 March 2003) and DeGolyer, Volume 23, p. 43. Works numbers were 17838 in June 1900 and 17856 in July.

Locobase 5487 shows a couple of Consolidations delivered to the Kansas City & Connecting Railroad at the same time. This pair was originally ordered by the Omaha, Kansas City & Eastern, the KC&C's successor, but that line apparently canceled and the engines were sold before completion to the G&SI.

The Ship Island received locomotives rated at 875 tons exclusive of engine and tender on the level and 600 tons up a 1 1/2% grade.

The pair was renumbered in January 1903. In 1912, the G&SI sold the 41 to the Louisiana Railroad & Navigation as their 89. The LR&N was called the Edenborn Line after its sole owner - Edenborn.

Nine years later, locomotive rebuilder/reseller Southern Iron & Equipment bought the aging 42. SI&E sold it about a year later to the Tennessee Railroad as their 28. Several years later the TRR sold the 28 to Birmingham Rail & Locomotive, which sold the engine in April 1934 to the Mexican sugar-refining company Azucarera Almeda.

NB: The original firebox heating surface area was taken from the specs for the Omaha, Kansas City & Eastern 2-8-0s shown in Locobase 5487, which had identical firebox measurements down to the 1/8".


Class 3 (Locobase 6964)

Data from G & SI 1922 and IC 9 - 1928 Locomotive Diagram books supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 20, p. 242. Works numbers were 15135 in December 1896, 15856 in April 1898, 17691-17692 in April 1900, 17899-17900 in July, 18364-18365 in October, 18959 in April 1901, and 18960 in May.

This Consolidation class might have been among the first to operate on the line; they had narrow fireboxes and small drivers. When delivered, the engines trailed tenders weighing 60,000 lb loaded and carrying 3,000 US gallons (11,355 litres) of water.

As it trended southwest from Jackson, the G&SI divided Mississippi roughly in half as it headed to the new town of Gulfport. If the three branches -- Gulfport to Handsboro (4 mi), Maxie to Columbia (48 mi), and Saratoga to Laurel (41 mi) -- are included, total line mileage was 253 miles (407 km). Fifteen years after its charter was awarded, the G&SI opened the Gulfport to Hattiesburg section (70 mi/113 km) on 1 January 1897.

Sam Lindsey, writing on http://www.samlindsey.com/Logging/GSI/GSI_History ... (accessed 9 October 2005), summarizes the substantial benefits that Mississippi derived from supporting this line: "...the railroad more than fulfilled its promise. It gave the state a deep-water harbor, more than doubled the population of towns along its route, built the City of Gulfport and made Hattiesburg a railroad center."

The line operated as a subsidiary of the Illinois Central beginning in the mid-1920s. Four of the engines (31, 32, 33, and 37) appear to be the only locomotives kept by the IC when that railroad took over the G&SI. The 31 was later sold to Adams Edgar Lumber by 1924. It joined the 32 at Lincoln County Gravel in Massachusetts a month after that engine arrived in June 1929. Mississippi Export bought the 33 in April 1928.

Walker Wallingford Company bought the 34 and 39 in February and August, 1927, respectively, but almost immediately let them go to locomotive rebuilder/reseller Georgia Car & Locomotive, which sold the 34 to Mays & Lusk contractors of Arkwright, Ala in April 1927. GC&L sold the 39 without its tender to Swift Hunter Lumber Company of Atmore, Ala in December 1927 as their 90.

37 went to Batson Hatton Lumber Company of Lyman, Mississippi in June 1929.

The IC later erased the G&SI's independent identity in 1946.


Class 601, 603 (Locobase 7015)

Data from IC 1911 Locomotive Data and 1913a Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also "Consolidation Engine: Illinois Central Railroad" Engineering, Volume 57, No 2 (12 January 1894), pp. 42-43. Works numbers were 4510-4511, 4567-4571, 4582-4591, 4598-4600, 4611-4612 in 1891; 4710-4717, 4730-4733, 4735-4736, 4847 in 1892.

The first two Consolidations in this large class had 51" drivers. Obviously the IC preferred the greater speed possible with taller drivers over the tractive effort increase afforded by smaller drivers. The look of the profile is unusual in that the gap between the first two driving axles is 6' 9" (2.06 m) while the spacing between the last three driving axles is 5' and 5' (1.52 m each). Perhaps that was necessitated by the inside valve gear layout. The long Belpaire firebox rode over the last two axles.

Little changed in service, the 611, 613, 621-622, and 628 were scrapped in February 1916 and 619 followed a month later. The first two in the class were sold for scrap to Briggs and Turivas in October 1929. The others all were sold to the Nacional de Mexico in February 1921 where they were renumbered 1003-1032.


Class 639 (Locobase 5336)

Data from table in AERJ July 1903. Also see IC 1911 Locomotive Data and 1913a Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works number was 5456 in November 1899.

This was a big example of a turn-of-the-century Consolidation in North America; in every respect it occupied the top 5% in weight and dimensions. The Belpaire firebox heating surface included 31 sq ft (2.9 sq m) of arch tubes. Page 34 of The Scientific American's Reference Book of 1905 by Albert Allis Hopkins, Alexander Russell Bond (p 34) quotes R Wells of the IC as saying that the specifications of this class was that they could haul 2,000-ton trains over a ruling grade of 38 ft to the mile (0.75%).

The authors also indulged in a speculation over how many of the 2-8-0s could pull the ocean liner Oceanic at 22 1/2 mph. The answer was 8 on land, but the resistance offered by water limited the locomotives to walking speed if they were to tow the ship on the water.

The 639 was later sold to the Peoria & Pekin Union as their #41.


Class 641 (Locobase 6975)

Data from the IC 1913ca Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

A quartet of Cookes (works #28686-28689) among all the IC Consolidations. These were later superheated; see Locobase 6976.


Class 641 - s (Locobase 6976)

Data from the IC 1913ca Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Like the other IC superheated upgrades, this quartet was fitted with Baker valve gear. Unlike the others, however, the small boiler meant a relatively large sacrifice of heating surface area when the superheater was added. Locobase figures that a relatively low axle loading meant that the upgrade put more power into branch-line operations where most other locomotives couldn't go.


Class 648 (Locobase 6980)

Data from the IC 1911 Locomotive Data book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Like the Cooke trio, these were lightly loaded locomotives that operated on branch-line freights. Unlike the Cookes, these much smaller engines were not superheated later.


Class 651 (Locobase 6970)

Data from the IC 1913ca Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also "Recent Locomotives for the Illinois Central," Railway Age, Volume 33, No 23 (6 June 1902), esp. pp. 863-864.

The diagram shows that Rogers delivered all of these Consolidations except 687-698, which Schenectady supplied in 1903. Tube counts varied among batches: 651-670, 687-698, 705-730, and 761-785 held 335 2" tubes; 671-680 and 699-704 had 331; and 731-760, for some reason, had 294 tubes.

Compared to other US 2-8-0s of the time, the IC engines were in the top third of heating surface areas, but had relatively shallow fireboxes. They were in the middle of the pack in terms of adhesion weight. The RA report said that these were, in effect, enlarged Moguls quite similar to the 2-6-0s already in service on the IC, but with an additional adhesion axle.

Like many other Rogers engines, the 651s had a flat cast steel frame and a cylinder brace just behind the cylinders. They noted that "good results have been obtained in the way of relieving the cylinder casting of much of the twisting strain, together with the result of producing a stiffer frame."

The IC's superheated update is shown in Locobase 6971.


Class 651 -s (Locobase 6971)

Data from the IC 4 - 1930 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

This upgrade was similar to that of the IC 651-class Moguls described in Locobase 6969 in using the same number of similar-diameter flues for the superheater. They were longer, which increased superheater area. But this was a more extensive changeover. Slide valves were replaced by 9" piston valves; these were driven by Baker radial valve gear. As superheated Consolidations went, this design was about average.


Class 793 (Locobase 6972)

Data from the IC 4 - 1930 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

The IC added to its Consolidation stud with this long series from Brooks. The first batch -- works #30052-30076, road #812-836 -- came in 1904. 38148-38169 arrived in 1905 as 844-865, 40360-40392 as 866-904 in 1906, 42431-42437 and 43424-43455 completed the series as 793-799 and 909-940. Most later received thermic syphons, which added 52.2 sq ft to the 177 sq ft of firebox heating surface.


Class 941 (Locobase 6973)

Data from the IC 4 - 1930 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also DeGolyer, Volume 33, pp. 124+ and Volume 37, pp. 225+. Works numbers were 33739-33740, 33768-33769, 33798-33799, 33809, 33838 in September 1909; 33965-33970 in October; 34036-34037, 34061-34062 in November; 35832, 35973-35975, 35983, 35985 in January 1911; 36077-36083, 36104-36112, 36147-36153 in February; 36158-36159, 36177-36180 in March.

The last of a large holding of Consolidations were these Baldwins of considerably larger dimensions. Note the boiler's tube count, which at over 400 tubes, is one of the most crowded. Piston valves measured 12" (305 mm) in diameter

Many of these were superheated; see Locobase 6974.


Class 941 - s (Locobase 6974)

Data from the IC 4 - 1930 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

The large boiler of the original saturated-steam Baldwin Consolidations shown in Locobase 6973 proved relatively capacious when the IC superheated this class. As a result, superheater area was proportionately larger than many other upgrades. At the same time, the relatively puny firebox heating surface gained 48 sq ft of syphons. They retained the 12"-diameter piston valves.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class193601, 603639641
Locobase ID12,419 6964 7015 5336 6975
RailroadGulf & Ship Island (IC)Gulf & Ship Island (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class2103814
Road Numbers19-20/41-423, 6, 15-18, 21-26/30-39601-638639641-644
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built2103814
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoRogersRogersAlco-Cooke
Year19001896189118991903
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)1414.7116.7516.2515
Engine Wheelbase (ft)22.0821.7524.4224.4223
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.63 0.68 0.69 0.67 0.65
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)48.2548.8156.8756.71
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)132,00094,000118,600184,800158,900
Engine Weight (lbs)148,000116,000137,300203,000178,900
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)83,00080,00080,000147,600147,600
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)231,000196,000217,300350,600326,500
Tender Water Capacity (gals)40003300385050007000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)8 7.501015
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)5539497766
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)465056.505751
Boiler Pressure (psi)180180165210200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)20" x 26"18" x 24"21" x 24"23" x 30"22" x 26"
Tractive Effort (lbs)34,59123,79526,27349,69841,947
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.82 3.95 4.51 3.72 3.79
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)180.30119.22168252149.30
Grate Area (sq ft)26.3320.8028.4538.5048
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)22031287162332082767
Superheating Surface (sq ft)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)22031287162332082767
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume233.03182.07168.69222.37241.89
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation47393744469480859600
Same as above plus superheater percentage47393744469480859600
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area32,45421,46027,72052,92029,860
Power L145323996397861795221
Power MT302.77374.88295.78294.86289.75

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class641 - s648651651 -s793
Locobase ID6976 6980 6970 6971 6972
RailroadIllinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class43135135138
Road Numbers641-644648-650651-785651-785793-800, 811-940
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built3135138
BuilderICManchesterseveralICAlco-Brooks
Year19201902190219201904
Valve GearBakerStephensonStephensonBakerStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)15.3314161617
Engine Wheelbase (ft)2321.3324.2524.2526
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.65
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)51.6148.545657.8757.40
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)59,30049,190
Weight on Drivers (lbs)161,000118,000163,000178,650181,000
Engine Weight (lbs)183,100132,000183,000199,210203,500
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)102,00099,350147,600147,600145,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)285,100231,350330,600346,810348,500
Tender Water Capacity (gals)50003000700070007000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)88151515
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)6749687475
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)515156.5056.5063
Boiler Pressure (psi)200185200200200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)22" x 26"20" x 24"20" x 28"20" x 28"22" x 30"
Tractive Effort (lbs)41,94729,60033,69933,69939,181
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.84 3.99 4.84 5.30 4.62
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)175.40150.82162162229.20
Grate Area (sq ft)4831.02545450
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)15131939270221402999
Superheating Surface (sq ft)440458
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)19531939270225982999
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume132.26222.19265.39210.19227.21
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation9600573910,80010,80010,000
Same as above plus superheater percentage11,808573910,80012,74410,000
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area43,14827,90232,40038,23245,840
Power L194374853649713,0826595
Power MT516.89362.68351.49645.75321.31

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class941941 - s
Locobase ID6973 6974
RailroadIllinois Central (IC)Illinois Central (IC)
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-0
Number in Class5251
Road Numbers941-993941-957, 959-993
GaugeStdStd
Number Built52
BuilderBaldwinIC
Year19091920
Valve GearStephensonBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)1717
Engine Wheelbase (ft)25.6725.67
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.66 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)57.6457.64
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)57,100
Weight on Drivers (lbs)200,900214,050
Engine Weight (lbs)223,000238,200
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)138,000135,050
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)361,000373,250
Tender Water Capacity (gals)70007000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)1414
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)8489
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)6363
Boiler Pressure (psi)200200
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)22" x 30"22" x 30"
Tractive Effort (lbs)39,18139,181
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.13 5.46
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)171225
Grate Area (sq ft)49.5049.50
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)36852701
Superheating Surface (sq ft)634
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)36853335
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume279.19204.64
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation99009900
Same as above plus superheater percentage990011,781
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area34,20053,550
Power L1722315,166
Power MT317.05624.81

Reference