Iowa Central / Minneapolis & St Louis 2-8-0 "Consolidation" Locomotives of the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 80/H1-32 (Locobase 4383)

Data from a mid-1930s diagram book on http://www.midiowa.com/warp9/0mstl26.jpg . Works number was 16307 in November 1898.

The IC received a pair of these Belpaire-boilered Consolidations in 1898; see Locobases 16152 (80) and 12307 (81).

441 (ex-401, ex-91, ex-81) was converted to simple expansion in 1911. Either then or later, the MSL removed 14 of the tubes from the boiler while adding a new firebox with more direct heating surface including 15 sq ft (1.39 sq m) of arch tubes.

The two engines were retired in 1936.


Class 80/H1-32 (Locobase 16152)

Data from a mid-1930s diagram book on http://www.midiowa.com/warp9/0mstl26.jpg . See also DeGolyer, Volume 21, p. 290. Works number was 16307 in November 1898.

The IC received a pair of these Improved Belpaire-boilered Consolidations in 1898. One--81--was delivered as a Vauclain compound; see Locobase 12307. This one was delivered as a simple-expansion locomotive to work a profile with a 1 1/4% (66 ft per mile) ruling grade.

441 (ex-401, ex-91, ex-81) was converted to simple expansion in 1911. Either then or later MSL removed 14 of the tubes from the boiler while adding a new firebox with more direct heating surface including 15 sq ft (1.39 sq m) of arch tubes.

The two engines were retired in 1936.


Class 81/H1-32 (Locobase 12307)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 21, p. 291. Works number was 16308 in November 1898.

This Belpaire-boilered Consolidation was delivered as a Vauclain compound wiuth 11 1/2" (292 mm) piston valves. After several railroad-owner and number changes, 441 (ex-401, ex-91, ex-81) was converted to simple expansion in 1911. See Locobase 4383 for the result.


Class H1-37 (Locobase 14084)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 45, p. 288. Works numbers were 33453-33459 in June 1909.

See Locobase 14085 for the twelve identical engines delivered to the Iowa Central (except for the three more tubes in this septet) and that railroad's Master Mechanic's detailed criticism of elements of the design such as the injectors, the front truck, arch pipes in the firebox, and cab details.

This class was later superheated; see Locobase 9026.


Class H2 (Locobase 14088)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 45, p. 288. Works numbers were 35622-35623, 35628 in November 1910; 35660-35663, 35700-35702 in December.

Following the earlier Consolidation batch described in Locobase 14085, this set had larger grates, no arch tubes, and 6 inch (152 mm) shorter boiler tubes. Combined in a single class with the Iowa Central engines described in Locobase 14086, all of this class was superheated beginning in 1915 (See Locobase 9029).


Class H2-37 (Locobase 14085)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 45, p. 288. Works numbers were 33473-33475, 33494-33499, 33515-33516 in June 1909 and 33532 in July.

This class was ordered at the same time as the Minneapolis & St Louis set described in Locobase 14084, but had three of the boiler tubes in the bottom row omitted. At their delivery, the firebox heating surface area included 24.5 sq ft (2.28 sq m) in arch tubes.

Baldwin's specs contain a 9 August 1909 letter from Baldwin rep J j Parmalee reporting that C E Gossett, the IC's Master Mechanic, had registered several criticisms or suggestions that illustrate just how interdependent were the components of a steam locomotive in achieving acceptable behavior. The specs called for two Nathan Monitor #11 water injectors, but Gossett found they were "too large and cannot be set fine enough to feed boiler ...and therefore flues are apt to leak and engines cannot be fired economically." He suggested fitting the boiler with Monitor #9 or #10. Moreover, the left injector should have a fuel sprinkler.

Apparently, the arch tubes shown above should be deleted, thought Gossett. He criticized the front truck's swing bolster design as the truck's flanges were "doing all guiding, which will probably wear them out on [sic] about 3 months." He suggested installation of "three-point or heart shaped suspension links."

Gossett also contended that both the gauge and water glasses in the cab "too fragile and break easily." The cab's left-side seat was 18" (457 mm) too short and the tool boxes in the tender's tank had internal lids and were "useless" as they were covered with coal. "(These were thrown away)" adds a parenthetical comment, although whether it refers to the lids or the tool boxes isn't clear.

The class was later superheated; see Locobase 9029.


Class H2-38 (superheated) (Locobase 9026)

Data from M&StL 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 and Steam Locomotive and Motor Car History Cards supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection.

Only a few years after the Baldwin IC 500s (Locobase 14084), the MSL began superheating the class and installed 8" (203 mm) Economy piston valves fitted inside Universal steam chests. Arch tubes contributed 22 sq ft (2.04 sq m) to the firebox heating surface. Possibly to gain a little more tractive effort, the shops also installed 1" (25.4 mm) smaller drivers.

402, 409, 411, 413-419 were all retired before World War II. The rest all received Ragonnet power reverse gear in 1942 except for the 410, which used a Barco version.

408 exchanged road numbers with 410 in December 1941.

NB: Superheater area is an estimate based on similar locomotives with identical setups.


Class H4-34 (Locobase 4384)

Data shown in a mid-1930s diagram book on http://www.midiowa.com/warp9/0mstl27.jpg . Works numbers were 26311-26316 in September 1902.

Originally built for the Iowa Central, this low-drivered class of Consolidation lasted only until the mid to late 1930s before retirement. They were never superheated and only ever received minor upgrades..


Class H5-39 (Locobase 9027)

Data from M&StL 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 and Steam Locomotive and Motor Car History Cards supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers 52300-52309, 52395-52396 were in October 1912.

Similar in most respects to the Baldwins supplied to the Iowa Central in 1911 (Locobase 14084), Alco's engines had cylinders of 1" (25.4 mm) greater diameter. The firebox heating surface included 25 sq ft (2.32 sq m) of arch tubes. In addition, the engines arrived with piston valves that were quite a bit larger at 14" (356 mm) in diameter.

The Tootin' Louie seems to have valued this class, if the number of parts added or repaired on the history cards over a long career are any indication. In addition to a host of tweaks (seat changes, mechanically operated fire door, etc.), all of the locomotives received Barco power reverse gear in 1936-1938. All but the 453 were fitted with a Standard automatic stoker in 1941-1945; it had been fitted with a Ragonnet power reverse in 1943 and was retired in 1944. The fireboxes of both 456 and 457 had Security circulators installed in 1944. 451 received a full package of upgrades including an Elesco superheater, trailing truck booster, and Nicholson thermic syphons. The booster came in a swap of tenders between 451 and 500.

Another sign how durable and valuable was the class was the sale of the 452 to American Crystal Sugar of Chaska, Minn in March 1949, some 37 years after its introduction. American Crystal added the 457 in 1950 to switch its sugar beet plant at Mason City, Iowa.

The 457 was preserved after its work for ACS ended. It was put on static display in September 1959 in East Park, Mason City, Iowa as the "Rotary Cannonball" in recognition of the Mason City Noon Rotary Club's fund-raising efforts that allowed its acquisition. As of 2015, the engine was well preserved under a dedicated canopy and a frequent part of Mason City celebrations.

NB: Superheater area is an estimate based on similar installations in other US locomotives.


Class H6-38 (Locobase 14086)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 45, p. 292. Works numbers were 35622-35623, 35628 in November 1910; 35660-35663, 35700-35702 in December.

Following the earlier Consolidation batch described in Locobase 14085, this set had larger grates, no arch tubes, and 6 inch (152 mm) shorter boiler tubes. Many Baldwins had Tate flexible staybolts, but Locobase notices that this firebox had 570 of them. Each engine in the order was assigned an "original value" by the M&StL as $17,715.


Class H6-38 (superheated) (Locobase 9029)

Data from M&StL 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley and Steam Locomotive and Motor Car History Cards supplied by Stanley in August 2013 from his extensive Raildata collection. Works numbers were 35622-35623, 35628 in November 1911; 35660-35663, 35700-35702 in December. Superheater area is an estimate based on similar installations in other US locomotives.

When the Iowa Central engines shown in Locobase 14086 were incorporated into the M&SL, they were grouped with the Minnesota & St Louis engines outlined in 14088. All 20 were superheated in 1915-1916; the history cards record the price for each superheater as $3,150.

The firebox grew by 49 sq ft (4.55 sq m) with about half the increase attributable to the 25 sq ft (2.32 sq m) of arch tubes and the driver diameter shrank by an inch.

471 was later sold to Wunder Klein & Donahue Company. nine--463-467, 472, 475, 476, and 480--were scrapped before the US entered World War II at the end of 1941. Most likely because of war demands, retirements didn't resume until July 1945, when eight--468-470, 473-474, 477, 479, 481--were withdrawn 471 followed in February 1946 and 478 closed the class when it was retired in September 1947.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class80/H1-3280/H1-3281/H1-32H1-37H2
Locobase ID4383 16152 12307 14084 14088
RailroadIowa Central (MSL)Iowa Central (MSL)Iowa Central (MSL)Minneapolis & St Louis (MSL)Minneapolis & St Louis (MSL)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class221710
Road Numbers80/90/400/440-44180/90/400/440-44181/91/400/440-441500-506/400-406410-419/430-439
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built11710
BuilderMSLBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwin
Year19141898189819091910
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase15.09'15.08'15.09'17'17'
Engine Wheelbase23.09'23.08'23.09'25.67'25.67'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.66 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)53.96'53.96'53.96'55.67'55.96'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers151000 lbs140000 lbs140000 lbs150000 lbs165000 lbs
Engine Weight165100 lbs154000 lbs154000 lbs172000 lbs187000 lbs
Tender Light Weight105300 lbs105300 lbs105300 lbs123000 lbs123000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight270400 lbs259300 lbs259300 lbs295000 lbs310000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity5000 gals5000 gals5000 gals6500 gals6500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)9 tons9 tons9 tons12 tons12 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)63 lb/yard58 lb/yard58 lb/yard63 lb/yard69 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter55"54"54"60"60"
Boiler Pressure180 psi180 psi180 psi200 psi200 psi
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)21" x 26"21" x 26"15" x 26"21" x 30"21" x 30"
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)25" x 26" (2)
Tractive Effort31896 lbs32487 lbs24375 lbs37485 lbs37485 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.73 4.31 5.74 4.00 4.40
Heating Ability
Firebox Area198 sq. ft171.90 sq. ft171.90 sq. ft173.50 sq. ft157 sq. ft
Grate Area32 sq. ft31.70 sq. ft31.70 sq. ft42.50 sq. ft49.50 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface1612 sq. ft2093 sq. ft2093 sq. ft2865 sq. ft2764 sq. ft
Superheating Surface
Combined Heating Surface1612 sq. ft2093 sq. ft2093 sq. ft2865 sq. ft2764 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume154.66200.81393.58238.23229.83
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation57605706570685009900
Same as above plus superheater percentage57605706570685009900
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area3564030942309423470031400
Power L141194589323862075902
Power MT240.55289.06203.96364.91315.43

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassH2-37H2-38 (superheated)H4-34H5-39H6-38
Locobase ID14085 9026 4384 9027 14086
RailroadIowa Central (MSL)Minneapolis & St Louis (MSL)Iowa Central (MSL)Minneapolis & St Louis (MSL)Iowa Central (MSL)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class191961210
Road Numbers225-236/408-419500-506, 410-419/400-406, 408-41992-97/442-447450-461420-429/462-471
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built1961210
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoMSLAlco-SchenectadyAlcoBaldwin
Year19091916190219121910
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertStephensonWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase17'17'16'17'17'
Engine Wheelbase25.67'25.67'24'25.67'25.67'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.66 0.66 0.67 0.66 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)55.67'56.33'53.60'55.96'55.96'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers150000 lbs150000 lbs146000 lbs174000 lbs165000 lbs
Engine Weight172000 lbs172000 lbs166000 lbs200000 lbs187000 lbs
Tender Light Weight123000 lbs120000 lbs105000 lbs134000 lbs123000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight295000 lbs292000 lbs271000 lbs334000 lbs310000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity6500 gals6500 gals6000 gals6500 gals6500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)12 tons12 tons8 tons12 tons12 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)63 lb/yard63 lb/yard61 lb/yard73 lb/yard69 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter60"59"55"59"60"
Boiler Pressure200 psi200 psi190 psi185 psi200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)21" x 30"21" x 30"21" x 26"22" x 30"21" x 30"
Tractive Effort37485 lbs38120 lbs33668 lbs38699 lbs37485 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.00 3.93 4.34 4.50 4.40
Heating Ability
Firebox Area181.50 sq. ft170 sq. ft274 sq. ft206 sq. ft157 sq. ft
Grate Area42.50 sq. ft42.30 sq. ft34 sq. ft49.50 sq. ft49.50 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2840 sq. ft2025 sq. ft2314 sq. ft2130 sq. ft2764 sq. ft
Superheating Surface425 sq. ft425 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2840 sq. ft2450 sq. ft2314 sq. ft2555 sq. ft2764 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume236.15168.38222.01161.38229.83
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation85008460646091589900
Same as above plus superheater percentage850098986460107149900
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area3630039780520604458931400
Power L1623210956615696275902
Power MT366.38644.10371.83487.91315.43

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassH6-38 (superheated)
Locobase ID9029
RailroadMinneapolis & St Louis (MSL)
CountryUSA
Whyte2-8-0
Number in Class20
Road Numbers462-481
GaugeStd
Number Built
BuilderMSL
Year1915
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase17'
Engine Wheelbase25.67'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)55.79'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers171700 lbs
Engine Weight200000 lbs
Tender Light Weight123000 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight323000 lbs
Tender Water Capacity6500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)12 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated)72 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter59"
Boiler Pressure200 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)21" x 30"
Tractive Effort38120 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.50
Heating Ability
Firebox Area206 sq. ft
Grate Area49.50 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2130 sq. ft
Superheating Surface425 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface2555 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume177.11
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation9900
Same as above plus superheater percentage11583
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area48204
Power L111423
Power MT586.68

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