Canadian Pacific 4-4-4 "Jubilee" Type Locomotives

Class Details by Steve Llanso

Class F-1a (Locobase 114)

Data from H M Le Fleming, "Illustrated Survey of Modern Steam Locomotives," in Ransome-Wallis (1959). See also data from tables and diagrams in the 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia and CP 2 - 1947 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley. CLC works numbers were 1924-1943 and the locomotives were produced from November 1937 to March 1938.

Followed five F-2a into service. Smaller, lower-drivered engines with less heating surface and grate area and slightly less thermic syphon area (31 sq ft/2.9 sq m).. The F-1s drove on the rear coupled axles; the F-2s drove on the front axle. Like other CP locomotives with two trailing axles, the lead wheels in the bogie were smaller than the rear wheels - 36 1/4" (921 mm) diameter vs 45" (1,145 mm).

They were fast, both absolutely and in terms of covering a schedule. According to the Steamtown special study of their 2929 (, accessed 2 Jan 2007), the F-1a was designed for fast local service between nearby cities. Instead they were relegated to secondary operations, including a Saskatchewan local that ran between Regina and Moose Jaw. The schedule demanded that "... the 16.4 km (10.2 miles) between Pasqua and Belle Plaine Sask., to be effected in ten minutes, an average start-to-stop speed in excess of 98 km/h (61 mph). This was, for some time in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the fastest scheduled speed attained by a Canadian passenger train."

In an "old-time trains" article by Newton Rossiter (, he tells us a bit about the subtleties of operating steam locomotives and the effects of operating conditions on such things as smoke generation:

""Trailing black smoke" was entered into work reports by enginemen many times when operating F1a 4-4-4 "Jubilees" on the Toronto to Hamilton run. The reason for the smoke is that the tubes are becoming blocked and "honeycomb" or slag is forming over the back tube sheet in the firebox, preventing proper combustion. This condition was prevalent on these engines when worked at speed with light trains on relatively level track. When this engine and her running mate, No. 2928, were assigned to the Hamilton to Goderich run and were returned to John Street, Toronto, for their monthly boiler wash, the tubes were observed to be in excellent shape. This was put down to the heavier working of the engine on the Goderich run, due to the up hill, down dale, character of the line. Working on grades with heavy exhaust had a scouring effect, keeping the tubes clean.

Class F-2a (Locobase 113)

Data from tables and diagrams in the 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia. See also CP 2 - 1947 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for the valve gear ID and the use of the term Jubilee.)

Riding on a wheel arrangement so rarely used it didn't have a popular name (although the CP did assign the name Jubilee to the wheel arrangements), the two Canadian Pacific F classes served a variety of short (four-car) fast express trains These five F-2a engines drove on the front axle. They preceded the similar but somewhat smaller F-1a type, which drove on the rear axle. All the latest labor-saving devices appeared on this quintet: feedwater heaters, 34 sq ft (3.15 sq m) of thermic syphons, roller bearings, mechanical stokers, all-weather cab.

Used on the Chinook (Calgary-Edmonton), Royal York (Toronto-Detroit), and two Montreal-Quebec trains. One of them claimed the Canadian steam speed record outright when a brake-test train pulling 4 cars (express, baggage-buffet, and two coaches) had reached 181 km/h (112.5 mph) when its brakes were put into emergency stop. The Steamtown special report on the CPR 4-4-4s (, accessed 2 Jan 2007) notes the outcome of the brake test: "he test established that the train required 2,227 m (1 mile, 2025 feet) to be brought to a complete stop, that the brake shoe temperatures on the cars ranged in excess of 360C. (700F.) while those of the driving wheel tires was in the order of 315C. (600F)."

Specifications by Steve Llanso
Locobase ID114 113
RailroadCanadian PacificCanadian Pacific
Road Numbers2910-29293000-3004
BuilderMontreal LWMontreal LW
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase 7.17' 7.67'
Engine Wheelbase32.59'37.25'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.22 0.21
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)64.80'70.73'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)
Weight on Drivers111280 lbs121000 lbs
Engine Weight240000 lbs263000 lbs
Tender Light Weight185000 lbs198500 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight425000 lbs461500 lbs
Tender Water Capacity9250 gals8400 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)12 tons12 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run93 lb/yard101 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter75"80"
Boiler Pressure300 psi300 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)16.5" x 28"17.25" x 28"
Tractive Effort25918 lbs26557 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.29 4.56
Heating Ability
Firebox Area200 sq. ft232 sq. ft
Grate Area45 sq. ft55.60 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface2291 sq. ft2833 sq. ft
Superheating Surface900 sq. ft1100 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface3191 sq. ft3933 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume330.62374.05
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation1350016680
Same as above plus superheater percentage1728021350
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area7680089088
Power L16164473374
Power MT2442.522673.75



Introduction and roster provided by Richard Duley. Class details and specifications provided by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media.