Delaware, Lackawanna &Western / Morris & Essex / Morristown & Erie 4-4-0 "American" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 165/G-1 (Locobase 9502)

Data from "Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Anthracite-burning Eight-Wheeler," Railway and Locomotive Engineering, March 1899, page 129; and "Dickson Locomotive for the Lackawanna", The Railway Age, Vol 27 (3 March 1899), p. 155. Works numbers were 1011-1012 in November-December 1898.

This pair from a local (Scranton, PA) builder just preceded the numerous G-2 et seq class (Locobase 102) that entered service three years later. The R&LE noted the particularly difficult nature of the commute on the Morris and Essex division that left from Hoboken and for which these locomotives were designed: "About 7 miles out a grade of about 78 feet to the mile [1.4%] has to be climbed for about three miles." At the time of the design, passenger trains would use helpers, but these Camelbacks were meant to take the grade on their own.

Within a year, the M&E locomotives had joined the DL&W roster, been designated G-1, and taken road numbers 971-972. Later they were renumbered 956-957. They were the only camelback 4-4-0s on the Lackawanna that were not superheated. They nonetheless served until 1929.

The later G class adopted larger-diameter drivers and enlarged the boiler to compensate.; see Locobase 102.


Class 19C/G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5 (Locobase 102)

Featured in Railroad Gazette (3 May 1901) and a table in the June 1906 AERJ. See also DeGolyer, Volume 26, pp. 300 and "Eight-Wheel, Wide Firebox Passenger Locomotives", American Engineer and Railroad Journal, Volume 75, Number 5 (May 1901), pp. 144-145. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .)

A "camelback" series with relatively low drivers for local passenger works built over a ten-year period, this set had one of the lowest boiler heating surface to grate area ratios possible. At the time, the AERJ article observed that a six-car train ran over the mountain profile at a 40-mph (64 kph) average, performance "so satisfactory as to indicate a successful result." The report adds "...great care was used to simplify in every possible way to avoid breakdowns. The driving journals were 9 x 12 inches [178 x 205 mm], and with 197 lb [89.4 kg] per square inch load, these do not run hot."

Their relatively small drivers gave them a useful tractive effort, but as speeds and weights climbed on the express trains they hauled, this type was relegated to suburban service.

Schenectady supplied the first 27 in 1901-1903 (973-999). Chris Hohl's email and spreadsheet broke the class IDs into the following:

G-2 - 973-982, G-3 - 982-991, and G4 - 992-999. Baldwin followed with 15 G-5 in 1904 (953-972), then back to Schenectady for 12 in 1905 (944-955) and 11 in 1910-1911 (933-944).

Most of the camelbacks were scrapped before World War II; a few were rebuilt with a single cab.

Many were superheated in the 1916-1921 period and fitted with piston valves; see Locobases 5725-5727. Ten of these were rebuilt in the 20s with a conventional cab, Baker valve gear.


Class 51 (Locobase 5422)

Data from "A New Express Locomotive", Railroad and Engineering Journal, Volume LXV [65], No 7 (July 1891), pp. 300-301.

This conventional-cab anthracite burner had a relatively narrow firebox at 42" (1,067 mm) inside, although it was compared the usual 33-34 inches of soft coal burners. Its profile showed a long, straight boiler capped by a small dome, ornate bell hanger, and short stack with wide, spark-arresting top. A long-wheelbase bogie extended well forward of the smokebox and anchored the traditional long-barred "cow catcher" style of pilot.

It was designed by WH Lewis, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western's Master Mechanic. Boiler pressure is an estimate. RREJ expressly noted that Mr Lewis did not use the extended smokebox. It did have a Rushforth feed water heater, outside Richardson-Allen balanced slide valves, and steam heating.

The Journal's comment on its use: "The work done by the passenger engines on this road is excellent and by no means easy. On the through or express trains they must keep up a high speed over a line having numerous curves and som very steep grades, while on the local trains they have to haul frequently 8 and 10 cars, with stops at intervals of one or two miles."

When the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western incorporated the M&E Division's locomotives into its main roster in 1899, it renumbered 51 as 939. So designated, the engine ran until 1911.


Class 91 (Locobase 9938)

Data from "Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Passenger Engine," Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Vol. X, No 2 (February 1897), page 153; and "Locomotive for Burning Culm--DL&W RR", Railway Review, Volume XXXV [35] (29 August 1896), p. 481. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 7 September 2018 email suggesting a change in class ID, his cite to a second source, and information about tender weight and capacity..) Dickson works numbers were 937-938 in July 1896 and 939 in August. These were originally delivered to the Morris & Essex (M & E).

Like all camelbacks from the anthracite region, this trio had the wide Wootten firebox that had transformed a coal-mining by-product. As Sinclair observed: "Culm is the fuel to be burned, and judging from the success that has attended its recent use, there is no reason to doubt the outcome in the present case. The problem of successfully utilizing the immense culm piles has been one of no small moment, but it was practically solved when they were made to give up some of their stored energy in hauling freight and passengers."

91's grate used water-tube grate bars that contributed 104.72 sq ft (9.73 sq m) to firebox heating surface area.

914 exploded in April 1902 at Dover. 915 was scrapped in 1920 with 912 following in 1927.


Class G-2a to G-9a G-10b-superheated (Locobase 5725)

Data from set of DL&W locomotive diagrams at [] (29 October 2003)

When the Lackawanna superheated its camelback Eight-wheelers that appear in Locobase 102, most of them were rebuilt to the specifications shown. This involved substituting "economy chests" with 10' (254 mm) piston valves for the slide valves originally installed.

One locomotive, 944, had its boiler tubes lengthened by about 5" (127 mm) over the standard rebuild, which increased total evaporative surface area to 1,637 sq ft (152.08 sq m).

992 was rebuilt with 21" (533 mm) cylinders supplied through true cast-steel 10" (254 mm) piston valves. Those changes placed in its own class G-10b.

Four were rebuilt with single cabs in 1937. 992 (July), 961 (October), 964 (November), and 970 (December) For some in the group, the upgrade meant continued service through World War II.

In April 2013, Chris Hohl sent a photo of 988 cosmetically "streamlined" in the same style as the N-class Pacifics. See Locobase 3306 for the full details of this makeover. The shorter boiler meant that only three bands were visible on the boiler instead of the Pacifics' six.

Locomotive 992 underwent a more substantial makeover; see Locobase

Others began retiring in the late 1920s.


Class G-6 (Locobase 16448)

Data from "A Tabular Comparison of Notable Examples of Recent Locomotives", American Engineer & Railroad Journal, Volume 85, No 7 (July 1911), p. 263. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 21 August 2019 email and spreadsheet noting the availability of data for this class.). Works numbers were 30547-30556 in April 1905.

These were big camelback Eight-wheelers. They had lots of evaporative heating surface area, large grates and fireboxes and high axle loadings.

Two of the engines were completed with Cole superheaters; see Locobase 5362.

All twelve were fitted with Schmidt superheaters. While they kept their designation, G-6a fell into the larger group of camelback 4-4-0s modified in the same way; see Locobase 5725.


Class G-7, G-7a (Locobase 5362)

Data from "Lackawanna Eight-wheel Passenger Locomotive with Superheater", Railway Age, (15 December 1905), pp. 758.

Locobase 102 describes the long run of camelback Eight-wheelers that first entered service in 1901. Toward the end of the production series, the Lackawanna tested superheaters in engines 954-955. The pair used Cole's superheater, which had narrower tubes than the Schmidt designs it otherwise resembled in most respects. Another difference was in the arrangement of large tubes in "straight vertical lines" to simplify the setup of the cast header in the smokebox.

954's set up included the D (flat) slide valves found in the rest of the series while the piston valve served the 955's cylinders. The slide valve proved "difficult to lubricate" and the superheater was removed after a short trial. 955's piston valves difficulties "were more easily overcome and this engine has shown a satisfactory performance."

Before long, the Cole superheater was replaced in 955 by the 22-tube Schmidt layout described in Locobase 5725.


Class G-8a (Locobase 5727)

Data from set of DL&W locomotive diagrams at [] (29 October 2003)

Like the other superheated camelback eight-wheelers (see Locobase 102), the rebuild involved substituting "economy chests" with piston valves for the slide valves originally installed. This one engine had its boiler tubes lengthened by about 5", which accounts for the increased heating surface area.


Class G-8b, G-9b (Locobase 5726)

Data from set of DL&W locomotive diagrams at [] (29 October 2003).

As delivered by Alco's Schenectady works in 1910, the five G-8s had work numbers 47943-47947. The 1911 engines, class G-9, had works numbers 49977-49982.

Like the other superheated camelback eight-wheelers (see Locobase 102), the rebuild involved substituting "economy chests" with piston valves for the slide valves originally installed. For some reason, these four had fewer flues left after the conversion.


Class Southport (Locobase 2555)

Data from John H White, Jr, A History of the American Locomotive: Its Development: 1830-1880 (New York: Dover Publications, 1979 - original publication in 1968).

Boiler pressure is an estimate. Works number was 98 in February 1857.

Standard 4-4-0 of the time, according to White. Originally built for the Ohio & Mississippi, it was delivered instead to the Delaware, Lackawanna, & Western for $11,500. A good investment it turned out to be, because the engine (renamed WE Dodge in 1865 and Sam Sloan in 1876) ran until 1912.

At the time of its construction, the builder was known as Danforth, Cooke & Co.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class165/G-119C/G-2, G-3, G-4, G-55191G-2a to G-9a G-10b-superheated
Locobase ID9502 102 5422 9938 5725
RailroadMorris & Essex (DL&W)Delaware, Lackawanna &WesternMorristown & Erie (DL&W)Morris & Essex (DL&W)Delaware, Lackawanna &Western
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class2651365
Road Numbers165-166/971-972/956-957973-999, 933-97251/93991, 163-164/912, 914-915933-956, 958-999
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built26513
BuilderDicksonseveralKingslandDicksonshops
Year18981901189118961916
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.598 / 2.44 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.92 / 6.9924.40 / 7.4422.37 / 6.8222.96 / 724.41 / 7.44
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.37 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.35
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48.62 / 14.8250.98 / 15.8547.54 / 14.4949.08 / 14.9651.43 / 15.68
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)85,700 / 38,873100,000 / 45,35974,455 / 33,77279,500 / 36,061106,400 / 48,262
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)124,000 / 56,246151,200 / 68,583106,000 / 48,081117,000 / 53,070159,200 / 72,212
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)120,000 / 54,43180,000 / 36,287115,900 / 52,571
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)271,200 / 123,014197,000 / 89,357275,100 / 124,783
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)36005000 / 18.943200 / 12.123500 / 13.265000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)710 / 9.104 / 3.6010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)71 / 35.5083 / 41.5062 / 3166 / 3389 / 44.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)65 / 165169 / 175369 / 175368 / 172769 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40185 / 12.80175 / 12.10160 / 11185 / 12.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66018.5" x 24" / 470x61019.5" x 24" / 495x61020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)24,480 / 11103.9523,701 / 10750.6117,708 / 8032.2218,252 / 8278.9823,701 / 10750.61
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.50 4.22 4.20 4.36 4.49
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)161.60 / 15.02192 / 17.84137 / 12.73279.94 / 26.01165 / 15.33
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)80 / 7.4387.70 / 8.1535 / 3.2580 / 7.4387.70 / 8.15
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1824 / 169.522142 / 1991337 / 124.261720 / 159.791189 / 110.50
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)340 / 31.60
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1824 / 169.522142 / 1991337 / 124.261720 / 159.791529 / 142.10
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume192.94226.57179.06207.33125.77
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation14,40016,225612512,80016,225
Same as above plus superheater percentage14,40016,225612512,80019,794
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area29,08835,52023,97544,79037,241
Power L1542969815450681911,419
Power MT279.32307.81322.75378.20473.21

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG-6G-7, G-7aG-8aG-8b, G-9bSouthport
Locobase ID16,448 5362 5727 5726 2555
RailroadDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &Western
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class122141
Road Numbers944-955954-955944934, 937, 940, 943
GaugeStdStdStdStd6'
Number Built1221
BuilderAlco-SchenectadyAlco-SchenectadyshopsshopsDanforth, Cooke
Year19051905191619161857
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59 8.50 / 2.59
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24.42 / 7.4424.42 / 7.4424.41 / 7.4424.41 / 7.44
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)51.05 / 15.5651.05 / 15.5651.80 / 15.7951.80 / 15.7948.33 / 14.73
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)100,000 / 45,359101,000 / 45,813106,400 / 48,262107,200 / 48,625
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)151,200 / 68,583151,200 / 68,583159,200 / 72,212162,400 / 73,66356,000 / 25,401
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)110,000 / 49,895110,000 / 49,895119,900 / 54,386119,900 / 54,386
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)261,200 / 118,478261,200 / 118,478279,100 / 126,598282,300 / 128,049
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.945000 / 18.945500 / 20.835500 / 20.83
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.1010 / 9.1010 / 9.1010 / 9.10
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)83 / 41.5084 / 4289 / 44.5089 / 44.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)69 / 175369 / 175369 / 175369 / 175366 / 1676
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)185 / 12.80185 / 12.80185 / 12.80185 / 12.8090 / 6.20
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66017" x 22" / 432x559
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)23,701 / 10750.6123,701 / 10750.6123,701 / 10750.6123,701 / 10750.617370 / 3342.98
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.22 4.26 4.49 4.52
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)190.80 / 17.73191.54 / 17.79165 / 15.33165 / 15.33105 / 9.76
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)87.54 / 8.1387.54 / 8.1387.60 / 8.1487.70 / 8.1518.38 / 1.71
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2139 / 198.721827 / 169.731637 / 152.141414 / 131.36969 / 90.06
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)312 / 28.99340 / 31.60340 / 31.59
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2139 / 198.722139 / 198.721977 / 183.741754 / 162.95969 / 90.06
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume226.26193.25173.16149.57167.66
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation16,19516,19516,20616,2251654
Same as above plus superheater percentage16,19518,62418,96119,3071654
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area35,29840,75035,71436,3259450
Power L1696012,58612,42711,9252559
Power MT306.88549.45514.98490.49

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