During 1917 and 1918, 55 "Mohawks" designated Class L-1b (road numbers 2530 through 2584) came from ALCO and in 1918, one hundred 4-8-2s would arrive from the Lima Locomotive Works. These Lima built locomotives, Class L-1c (road numbers 2585 through 2639) and Class L-1d (road numbers 2640 through 2684) were duplicates of the ALCO built Class L-1a locomotives.
Between 1925 and 1930, the NYC bought a total of three hundred more "Mohawks" and designated them Class L-2. All 300 of the L-2 Mohawks were eventually numbered 2700 through 2999. Those L-2 Mohawks originally numbered 2450 through 2499 were renumbered 2950 through 2999 in 1936.
In the 1940s, 115 more "Mohawks" were added to the roster making a total of 600 4-8-2s built for the New York Central. This last group included the 65 Class L-3 (road numbers 3000 through 3034 and 3050 through 3064 from ALCO and road numbers 3035 through 3049 from Lima) and the 50 Class L-4 (road numbers 3100 through 3149 from Lima).
The NYC performed heavy repairs on and did rebuilding of locomotives at shop complexes such as those at Beech Grove, IN and Collinwood, OH.
The L-3 and L-4 Mohawks were built without smoke deflectors, and were the only Mohawks retrofitted with them. The L-3a Mohawks were built with roller bearings on all axles, but the L-3b and L-3c Mohawks were built with roller bearings on all axles except those of the driving wheels. The L-4 Mohawks were built with roller bearings on all axles.
The L-3 Mohawks were built with Boxpok driving wheels and the L-4 Mohawks were built with either Boxpok or Scullin Disc driving wheels. These wheels had a nickel content of 2-3 percent, but no NYC engine was equipped with stainless steel drivers. According to Mr. Gerbracht, stainless steel has metallurgical properties which make it unsuitable for use in driving wheel centers or tires.
There are two surviving NYC "Mohawks": number 2933 at the Museum of Transportation in St. Louis, MO and number 3001 at the National NYC Railroad Museum in Elkhart, IN.
The first of a numerous stud of Mountains (known as Mohawks on the NYC). Schenectady built the first two batches 2500-2584) and Lima finished off the class in 1918.
These were not the engines that made the 4-8-2 such a staple on the Water Level Route. For one thing, they were completed without automatic stokers. This meant, according to the New York Central Museum website (nycmuseum.railfan.net/MOHAWK.htm), that they couldn't use all the potential in their boilers. Moreover, they were hard on the track.
Although the proportions of boiler to cylinder and to grate were approximately the same and L-1s had the same 14" (356 mm) piston valves, later Mohawks had bigger grates and boilers as well as a longer stroke and higher boiler pressure.
Two L-1b--2568-2569--were converted to a three-cylinder design (25" x 28") in 1922 and 1924, respectively.
By the mid-1930s, 50 of the 185 L-1s had been scrapped.
http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003) and the 1946 guide from the same site. The tube count is from the 1946 version. Works numbers for the L-2a were 66281 in March 1925, 66578-66647 in March 1926, 66648-66676 in May and for the L-2c 67821
-67835 in April 1929, 67850 in May, 67851-67875 in April, 67876-67899 in June, 67900-67905 in July, 67906-67914 in August, 67915-67920 in September
Boiler had Elesco feedwater heater, valve motion limited cutoff. NY, O & W 459-460 similar. Like the L-1s, these Mohawks were limited to a 60-mph maximum speed. But their bigger boiler and grate set the standard for later NYC 4-8-2s.
Known as Mohawks in NYC service (Locobase 15900), 50 of this class went to the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis.
Boiler had feedwater heater, valve motion with limited cutoff operating 14" (356 mm) piston valves.
Slightly larger boilers than the earlier L-2as. More important, their cast-steel engine beds, roller bearings, lightweight main and side rods meant the NYC could raise the maximum speed to 80 mph, thus making them truly dual-purpose locomotives. According to nycmuseum.railfan.net/MOHAWK.htm, L-3s developed 4,100 hp at 57 mph, which was a 23 1/2% increase over the L-2ds.
Boiler had feedwater heater, valve motion with limited cutoff.
Slightly larger boilers than the earlier L-2as (Locobase 444). More important, their cast-steel engine beds, roller bearings, lightweight main and side rods meant the NYC could raise the maximum speed to 80 mph, thus making them truly dual-purpose locomotives. According to nycmuseum.railfan.net/MOHAWK.htm, L-3s developed 4,100 hp at 57 mph, which was a 23 1/2% increase over the L-2ds.
Known as Mohawks in NYC service, 50 of this class went to the Big Four (CCC&StL); see Locobase 213.
The first 25 of these dual-service engines were assigned to passenger trains and fitted with roller bearings for lower resistance and faster running. Pressing the boiler at 250 psi meant smaller cylinders to fill and still greater power. The L-3b and c had boosters that added 14,000 lb (6,350 kg) to starting tractive effort. L-3a had Worthington feed water heaters while L-3b and L-3c had Elescos.
Drury (1993) claims they were the equal of the better-known Hudsons at passenger running while the 4-6-4s couldn't haul freight. The L-4s that followed the L-3 class (Locobase 215) had drivers that were 3" taller.
The nycmuseum.railfan.net/MOHAWK.htm website puts it more strongly about both the L-3s and L-4: "[Their] performance was almost beyond belief. It was nothing for them to bring in a heavy freight drag, be serviced, and leave a few hours later at the head of one of the "Great Steel Fleet' passenger trains.".
In the latter service, their huge PT tenders ensured endurance. Although tank capacity seemed almost modest, track pans between the rails on the Water Level Route meant the engine could take on water while scarcely slowing down. 86,000 lb (39,009 kg) of coal cut the number of stops for refuelling considerably.
Firebox heating surface included 35 sq ft of arch tubes as well as a sizable combustion chamber. They were identical to the L-3s (Locobase 214) but had 3"-taller drivers and slightly larger cylinders to compensate. Piston valves measured 14" (356 mm) in diameter and the boiler accommodated a Worthington feed water heater.
Farrington (1976), who didn't particularly like the J-class Hudsons, says these L-4s could climb Albany Hill with seven cars in tow without a helper.
The nycmuseum.railfan.net/MOHAWK.htm website puts it more strongly about both the L-3s and L-4: "[Their] performance was almost beyond belief. It was nothing for them to bring in a heavy freight drag, be serviced, and leave a few hours later at the head of one of the "Great Steel Fleet' passenger trains." 50 L-4s ran up about 5.5 million miles (8.55 million km) in their first four years--an average of 27,500 miles (44,275 km) per locomotive per year. 4.5 million (7.25 million km) of that distance was covered hauling passenger trains.
|Specifications by Steve Llanso|
|Class||L-1a||L-2a/L-2c||L-2b||L-2d||L-3a, b, c||L-4b|
|Railroad||New York Central (NYC)||New York Central (NYC)||Big Four (NYC)||New York Central (NYC)||New York Central (NYC)||New York Central (NYC)|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.46||0.43||0.43||0.43||0.44||0.44|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)||82.54'||84.58'||84.67'||84.67'||95.96'||95.96'|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)|
|Weight on Drivers||234000 lbs||242000 lbs||247500 lbs||247500 lbs||264440 lbs||266500 lbs|
|Engine Weight||343000 lbs||362500 lbs||368500 lbs||368500 lbs||398000 lbs||401100 lbs|
|Tender Light Weight||166500 lbs||283700 lbs||312700 lbs||312700 lbs||374200 lbs||379700 lbs|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight||509500 lbs||646200 lbs||681200 lbs||681200 lbs||772200 lbs||780800 lbs|
|Tender Water Capacity||15000 gals||15000 gals||15000 gals||15000 gals||15500 gals||15200 gals|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)||18 tons||21 tons||28 tons||28 tons||43 tons||42 tons|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run||98 lb/yard||101 lb/yard||103 lb/yard||103 lb/yard||110 lb/yard||111 lb/yard|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Boiler Pressure||190 psi||225 psi||225 psi||225 psi||250 psi||250 psi|
|Cylinders (dia x stroke)||28" x 28"||27" x 30"||27" x 30"||27" x 30"||25.5" x 30"||26" x 30"|
|Tractive Effort||51380 lbs||60618 lbs||60618 lbs||60618 lbs||60077 lbs||59854 lbs|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.55||3.99||4.08||4.08||4.40||4.45|
|Firebox Area||320 sq. ft||354 sq. ft||345 sq. ft||345 sq. ft||373 sq. ft||373 sq. ft|
|Grate Area||66.80 sq. ft||75.35 sq. ft||75.30 sq. ft||75.30 sq. ft||75.30 sq. ft||75.30 sq. ft|
|Evaporative Heating Surface||4430 sq. ft||4646 sq. ft||4556 sq. ft||4556 sq. ft||4676 sq. ft||4676 sq. ft|
|Superheating Surface||1212 sq. ft||1938 sq. ft||1931 sq. ft||1931 sq. ft||2082 sq. ft||2082 sq. ft|
|Combined Heating Surface||5642 sq. ft||6584 sq. ft||6487 sq. ft||6487 sq. ft||6758 sq. ft||6758 sq. ft|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||222.00||233.70||229.17||229.17||263.69||253.65|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||12692||16954||16943||16943||18825||18825|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||15357||21870||22025||22025||24661||24661|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||73568||102749||100913||100913||122158||122158|