Santa Fe 2-10-4 "Texas" Type Locomotives

Introduction

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad flirted with the 2-10-4 wheel arrangement for nineteen years before it placed an order for more than one locomotive. The flirting began in 1919, with experimental number 3829, a 2-10-2 that was fitted with a four-wheel trailing truck. When the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad took delivery of its last series of 2-10-2 locomotives it had the Baldwin Locomotive Works, as an experiment, equip one of them (number 3829) with a four-wheel trailing truck. This experimental 2-10-4 locomotive was the first of this wheel arrangement and had 63" diameter drivers, 30" x 32" cylinders, a 220 psi boiler pressure, a tractive effort of 85,485 pounds and each weighed 396,900 pounds. The experiment did not yield any conclusive results and number 3829 remained in service as a 2-10-4 until it was retired in 1955 and none of the other Class 3800s were fitted with four-wheel trucks.

The second flirtation occurred with the delivery of number 5000, a single 2-10-4 locomotive in 1930. This Baldwin-built, 502,600 pound "Texas" type locomotive had 69" diameter drivers which were higher than most freight motive power at the time and with a 300 psi boilers pressure exerted 95,584 pounds of tractive effort.. From the very beginning, number 5000 was nicknamed "Madam Queen". It was this single locomotive that proved the value of the four-wheel trailing truck and high drivers on 2-10-4s and led the AT&SF to order thirty-five of them starting in 1938. "Madam Queen" operated heavy freight and ran up 1,700,000 miles before it was retired in 1953. Number 5000 was a coal-fired locomotive and was converted to an oil burner in 1940.

Ten "Texas" type locomotives were delivered from Baldwin in 1938. Five of them (road numbers 5001 through 5005) were coal burners and the other five (road numbers 5006 through 5010) burned oil. These Class 5001 locomotives had 74" diameter drivers, 30" x 34" cylinders, a 310 psi boiler pressure, and a tractive effort of 93,000 pounds. The coal burners weighed 540,500 pounds and the oil burners weighed 533,000 pounds.

Another order was given to Baldwin for twenty five oil burning 2-10-4s which it delivered in 1944. These locomotives were assigned road numbers 5011 through 5036 and were similar to the ones delivered in 1938.

There are five surviving AT&SF "Texas" type locomotives:

* 5000 - "Madam Queen" is at the Railroad Artifacts Preservation Society in Amarillo, TX

* 5011 - Museum of Transportation in St. Louis, MO

* 5017 - National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, WI

* 5021 - North of the California State Railroad Museum Shop, Sacramento, CA

* 5030 - Salvador Perez Park, Santa Fe, NM

"Madam Queen" was donated to the City of Amarillo, Texas by the AT&SF in 1957. It received little upkeep and was deteriorating badly when, in 1992, a small group of railroad enthusiasts formed the Texas Panhandle Railroad Historical Society of Amarillo, Texas. The TPRHS, with the aid of the City of Amarillo, undertook a project to restore number 5000. The cosmetic restoration was completed in the summer of 1996. In 2003, a new group was formed under the name of Railroad Artifacts Preservation Society to take charge of the locomotives. Plans are to put it into a building and to that end it was moved to it present location in August 2005. After the relocation, the Railroad Artifacts Preservation Society volunteers concentrated on the cosmetic restoration of the locomotive.  This restoration took three years and was completed in August of 2008. As of 2011 the locomotives is still not inside.

Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumberYear Built Builder Notes
5000 150001930Baldwin1
5001105001-50101938Baldwin2
5011265011-50361944Baldwin3
Notes:
  1. Number 5000 is preserved and is on display in Santa Fe Park in Amarillo, TX.
  2. Numbers 5001-5010 scrapped in 1959
  3. Numbers 5011, 5017, 5021 and 5030 are preserved. Number 5011 is on display at the Museum of Transportation in St. Louis, MO, Number 5017 is at the National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, WI, Number 5021 is at the California State Railroad Museum Shop, in Sacramento, CA and Number 5030 is at Salvador Perez Park, in Santa Fe, NM. All the others scrapped in 1959.

Class Details by Steve Llanso

Class 3829 (Locobase 8282)

Data from AT&SF 9 -1920 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive collection. All of Drawing Room Specification Book Number 61 of the DeGolyer Library's Baldwin collection is devoted to Santa Fe locomotive orders in the late 19teens and 1920s. The 3829's specs run from page 339 to 366.

Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from http://atsf.railfan.net/atsfstea.html (accessed 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema. Works number was 52237 in August 1919.

This was a premature Texas arrangement, although clearly it was meant to solve the same problem. Although the firebox dimensions were the same as the 3800 class of 2-10-2s from which this locomotive was extracted, the trailing truck's two axles bore 12,500 more pounds and allowed a somewhat lower axle loading on all of the driven axles. Also the boiler layout changed with this boiler having 20 more small tubes and 4 fewer flues than the Santa Fes. (The locomotive's Commonwealth trailing truck -- fitted after 1925 -- redistributed the weight more in line with the 3800 2-10-2s.) It was never altered to run as a 2-10-2 like her near-sisters.

This was the Santa Fe's only 2-10-2 for 11 years and the next one -- #5000 "Madame Queen" (Locobase 457) -- reflected the "superpower" revolution in large US locomotives that had occurred in the meantime.

Class 5000 (Locobase 457)

Data from 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and from diagram hosted on http://www.railroadingonline.net/railroads/atsf/drawings/c5000.gif, accessed 11 March 2007. See also extended set of specifications at DeGolyer, Vol 82, pp. 358+. Works number was 61524 in October 1930.

Three thermic syphons added 127 sq ft (11.8 sq m) to the firebox heating surface.

Madame Queen (# 5000), was a single locomotive produced in 1930. This was a path-breaking engine in its combination of high adhesion and relatively tall drivers supporting a very large boiler pressed to an unprecedented degree. Indeed, except for the 69" drivers, which were supplanted by 74" gliders, this design pretty well established the dimensions for the Santa Fe's fleet of Texas engines: 5001-5010 (Locobase 458), and 5011-5035 (Locobase 91).

The Baldwin specs show that the adhesion weight forecasts fell short. Maximum axle load was supposed be 72,150 lb (32,727 kg) and total weight on the drivers should come to 349,910 lb (158,717 kg). Apparently the railroad recognized the difficulties inherent in predicting weights for such a new design as they did not refuse the engine as the specs suggested they should:"Locos. will not be accepted by Ry co if weight per axle varies more than 500 pounds above or below that specified."

Also found in the specs is a detailed justification by General Steel Castings Corp. for the cast-steel bed with cylinders cast integrally. "On the basis of the above locomotive bed with integral cylinder weights a saving of 4,550 pounds is indicated over the separate cylinder design." GSCC was established by Baldwin at its Eddystone Plant in 1928.

See Locobase 8282 for the earlier 3829, a 1919 singleton derived from the 3800 class of 2-10-2s, but fitted with a 2-axle trailing truck.

Class 5001 (Locobase 458)

Data from tables in 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia, supplemented by Alfred W Bruce, The Steam Locomotive in America - Its development in the twentieth century (New York: W W Norton, 1952), p 311 and "Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe steam engine diagrams and blueprints," Kansas Memory, a website of the Kansas Historical Society, diagram at http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/221763/page/285.Works numbers were 621553-62162.

Firebox heating surface included 168 sq ft (15.6 sq m) from three thermic syphons and arch tubes.

Some confusion about this class but it appears to sort out as follows: Madame Queen", (# 5000), was a single locomotive produced in 1930 with 69" drivers; see Locobase 457. In 1938, 10 more -- 5 coal, 5 oil-burning -- were produced with 74" drivers and larger boilers; these are described in this entry.

Finally, the last 25 (5011-5035) were built during WW II with roller bearings and the 16-wheel tenders (Locobase 91). Cylinder HP was over 6,000 hp. The tall drivers were unusual for so large a freight engine.

Bruce observes that these locomotives developed probably the highest piston thrust ever recorded -- 219,000 lb (99,337 kg) . To absorb such loads, the driving axles measured 15" (381 mm) in diameter and the frames were 7" (178 mm) deep. This class was later refitted with 105 sq ft (9.75 sq m) of security circulators in place of the thermic syphons; total firebox heating surface decreased to 569 sq ft (52.85 sq m).

Class 5011 (Locobase 91)

Data from tables and diagrams in 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia. See also "Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe steam engine diagrams and blueprints," Kansas Memory, a website of the Kansas Historical Society, diagram at http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/221763/page/286 . Baldwin works numbers were 70817-70841 in 1944.

These were the last twenty five 2-10-4s built for the Santa Fe. Built during WW II as oil burners, they represented the peak of rigid-wheelbase freight locomotive design (although their unusually tall drivers allowed their use, quite successfully, in passenger service).

Thermic syphons contributed 30 sq ft (2.78 sq m) to firebox heating surface. (Locobase is puzzled by the much smaller area shown for this class compared to earlier Santa Fe 2-10-4s. He wonders if the smaller firebox reflected a scarcity of the metals that would have been used to construct them.) Piston valves measured 15 inches (381 mm) in diameter.

As steam producers, these engines had few peers. Cylinder HP was over 6,000 hp. Regard the high percentage of combined heating surface devoted to superheating and the very large ratio of tube and flue cross-sectional area to grate area. Even as large a firebox as had these Texas engines was only just big enough to service the immense boilers.

Timken roller bearings applied to all axles (including the tender trucks). Worthington 6SA feedwater heater, cast-steel bed with integral cylinders, lightweight rods were among the other features of this awesome locomotive design.


Specifications by Steve Llanso
Class3829500050015011
Locobase ID8282 457 458 91
RailroadSanta Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-10-42-10-42-10-42-10-4
Road Numbers382950005001-50105011-5035
GaugeStdStdStdStd
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwin
Year1919193019381944
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase22'24.50'26.20'26.20'
Engine Wheelbase45.12'47.58'50.20'50.20'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.49 0.51 0.52 0.52
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)85.18'99.56'98.64'98.64'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)61000 lbs76570 lbs76550 lbs77400 lbs
Weight on Drivers300000 lbs372000 lbs371600 lbs380300 lbs
Engine Weight402000 lbs502600 lbs545260 lbs536000 lbs
Tender Light Weight277000 lbs375000 lbs286370 lbs464700 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight679000 lbs877600 lbs831630 lbs1000700 lbs
Tender Water Capacity15000 gals20000 gals21000 gals24500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)20 tons23 tons23 tons7000 gals
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run100 lb/yard124 lb/yard124 lb/yard127 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter63"69"74"74"
Boiler Pressure195 psi300 psi310 psi310 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)30" x 32"30" x 34"30" x 34"30" x 34"
Tractive Effort75771 lbs113087 lbs108961 lbs108961 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.96 3.29 3.41 3.49
Heating Ability
Firebox Area417 sq. ft570 sq. ft631 sq. ft494 sq. ft
Grate Area88.30 sq. ft121.70 sq. ft121.70 sq. ft121.70 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface5311 sq. ft6098 sq. ft6075 sq. ft5937 sq. ft
Superheating Surface1298 sq. ft2550 sq. ft2675 sq. ft2640 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface6609 sq. ft8648 sq. ft8750 sq. ft8577 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume202.87219.22218.40213.44
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation17219365103772737727
Same as above plus superheater percentage20662470984942249422
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area97578220590256249200613
Power L114921395634577844214
Power MT548.251172.331357.951281.55

Photos

Reference

Credits

Introduction and roster provided by Richard Duley. Class details and specifications provided by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media.