Pennsylvania 2-10-4 "Texas" Type Locomotives

Introduction

On the Pennsylvania Railroad, soon after World War II began, it became apparent that heavier and more powerful locomotives would be needed to handle the surge in traffic due to the war effort.

With wartime restrictions on new locomotive designs imposed by the War Production Board the PRR was forced to borrow a design from another railroad. It chose the C&O's Class T-1 "Texas" type and the C&O loaned it a locomotive for evaluation. The PRR engineers prepared drawings based on the T-1 and the Altoona Shops built what would become North America's largest fleet of "Texas" type locomotives. In total the PRR's shops at Altoona, Pennsylvania would build 125 of these locomotives.

The Altoona Shops started delivering the new 2-10-4s in late 1942 with six out-shopped with road numbers 6450 through 6455.and designated as Class J-1. In1943, a total of 101 were built and put to work. Forty-one were given road numbers 6435 through 6449, 6456 through 6476 and 6150 through 6156. This group was designated as Class J-1, The other sixty were built with cast bed frame and were assigned road numbers 6401 through 6434 and 6475 through 6500 and they were designated as Class J-1a. In 1944, another eighteen were added to the roster as road numbers 6157 through 6174. These last eighteen were of the J-1 class.

All of the PRR "Texas" type locomotives had 69" diameter drivers, 29" x 34" cylinders, a 270 psi boiler pressure with a resultant tractive effort of 95,100 pounds. The J-1s weighed 589,975 pounds and the J-1a locomotives weighed 579,975 pounds. The firebox had an area of 575 square feet, the evaporating surface was 5,998 square feet and the superheater added 2,930 square feet giving the J-1 and J-1a a total of 9,498 square feet of combined heating surface. The boiler was of the radial stay design and the piston valve had a diameter of 14 inches. There was a trailing truck booster that added 15,000 pounds tractive effort.

The J1 and J1a locomotives spent the war years hauling freight on the railroad west of Altoona. Fifty five were assigned to the Central Region spread among the Western Pennsylvania Division-Pittsburgh Division, the Eastern Ohio Division-Eastern Division, the Eastern Ohio Divisions-Panhandle Division and the Lake Division-Cleveland Division. The other seventy were assigned to the Western Region spread among the Northwestern Division-Toledo Division, the Northwestern Division-Ft Wayne Division, the Northwestern Division-Logansport Division and the Southwestern Division-St. Louis Division

After the war they were displaced by diesels but the PRR found uses for them until they were retired in the late 1950s. There are no surviving examples of the PRR's 2-10-4s.

Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumberYear Built Builder Notes
J1 66450-64551942PRR1
J1196456-64741943PRR1
J1a266475-65001943PRR1
J1a346401-64341943PRR1
J1156435-64491943PRR1
J1 76150-61561943PRR1
J1186157-61741944PRR1
Notes:
  1. In 1958 the PRR scrapped all but 25 of its Class J1 and J1a locomotives. In 1959 the remaining 25 were sold for scrap.

Class Details by Steve Llanso

Class J1 (Locobase 98)

Data from tables in 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia and PRR Steam Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive collection. See also the discussion of the question of counterbalancing in a Railroad.Net thread begun by Allen Hazen on 15 March 2011 (http://www.railroad.net/forums/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=80414, last accessed 13 April 2013).

Based on the Chessie's 40 T-1 class engines built in the 1930s (Locobase 95). Pennsy built 127 total, modifying them slightly internally and to a significant degree on the surface, including the addition of a much larger tender. J1as used different materials in their boilers, but were otherwise identical. Some sources claim that J1a had cast-steel, as opposed to built-up, locomotive beds, but others state that both classes had locomotives roling on both kinds of beds.

Unlike most Pennsy engines, which had 12" piston valves, these imports sported 14" (356 mm) diameter piston valves. EHS, SHS dimensions were slightly smaller, but BP higher, resulting in higher TE.

J1s initially had serious issues with counterbalancing the drivers, possibly because they used the original specifications (suggested by a Railroad.net post by Les ("Desertdweller") and not ones developed by the C&O after confronting their own problems. The Pennsy did solve the problems and it's worth recalling that the Chessie did have continuing issues as noted in Locobase 95.

Regardless, the J1s were considered very successful engines.


Specifications by Steve Llanso
ClassJ1
Locobase ID98
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSA
Whyte2-10-4
Road Numbers6150+, 6401+
GaugeStd
BuilderJuniata
Year1942
Valve GearBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase24.33'
Engine Wheelbase49.25'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.49
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)104.04'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)76800 lbs
Weight on Drivers377800 lbs
Engine Weight572640 lbs
Tender Light Weight411500 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight984140 lbs
Tender Water Capacity21000 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)29.9 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run126 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter69"
Boiler Pressure270 psi
Cylinders (dia x stroke)29" x 34"
Tractive Effort95106 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.97
Heating Ability
Firebox Area575 sq. ft
Grate Area121.70 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface6568 sq. ft
Superheating Surface2930 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface9498 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume252.69
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation32859
Same as above plus superheater percentage43045
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area203378
Power L142781
Power MT1248.22

Photos

Reference

Credits

Introduction and roster provided by Richard Duley. Class details and specifications provided by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media.