Porto Alegre a Uruguayana / Puerto Alegre and Uruguyana 4-4-0 Locomotives in Brazil

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 22 (Locobase 11989)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 17, p. 74 .See also Lionel Wiener, "Locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul", Locomotive Magazine, Volume 18 (14 September 1912), p. 191. Works numbers were 12112-12114 in August 1891 and 12727-12728 in June 1892.

Miniature Vauclain compounds had 7" (177 mm) piston valves to supply the HP and LP cylinders on each side. Wiener commented that there was an "interesting detail" in the construction of the Vauclain compound that was "typical of locomotive practice as it is understood in America." He explained that the steam chest was "a complicated piece of mechanism to machine accurately, as the steam passages must be dressed perfectly." He contended that the chest was bored to a larger diameter than needed and the passages cast larger than the finished ports. To his mind, it was a clever move to then force a separately made auxiliary bushing of hard cast iron into the chest.

He concluded: "This system is characteristic; the piece is made roughtly, and a key or wedge forced in, the whole being easy not only to machine, but to regulate besides."

Locobase cannot comment on the quality of Baldwin's manufacturing methods in 1891, but suspects they were more precise even then than Wiener seemed to expect.

The 1891 engines had no names, probably because they had been ordered by the Central do Brasil, but were diverted to the PAU when the 1892 troubles erupted.

The 1892 locomotives were named Floriano Peixoto and Antao de Faria.

Class 41 (Locobase 12211)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 20, p. 176. See also Lionel Wiener, "Locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul", Volume 18 (15 October 1912), pp. 214-215. Works number was 14974 in July 1896.

This single Eight-wheeler had reasonable power for a metre-gauge passenger engine of the time and sizable cylinder volume. Wiener appears to have added the firebox heating surface area to arrive at his evaporative heating surface of 845 sq ft (78.5 sq m). The railroad specified Belpaire reverse gear. Another detail was the requirement that the the rivet heads in the tender's coal space "be of such size that they will stand the action of coal on them."

The 41's operating environment on the new section of line beyond Caceqquy included a ruling grade of 1.8% and a minimum curve radius of 120 metres. Wiener commented that the locomotive was "certainly one of the best engines that was ever supplied to the railway and still continues to do excellent work."

Class 5 (Locobase 11830)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 12, p. 118 and Volume 13, pp. 102. See also Lionel Wiener, "Locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul", Locomotive Magazine, Volume 18 (15 August 1912), p. 174. Works numbers were 7476-7477 in October 1884; 8104, 8106 in August 1886.

The latter two locomotives, bore road numbers 8, 7 respectively. Wiener offered this profile of American locomotive construction as found on the PAeU. "the main characteristics are the massive proportions of all parts, which bear a lot of wear and allow rough handling harmlessly, the accessibility of everything, and the ease with which all portions can be taken to pieces."

Wiener added that the engines were "less economical than the European locomotive in coal consumption and lubrication; on the other hand, it is more supple and less costly in repairs." He noted the rough and ready quality of the track and posed the question of choice as "Does the state of the track warrant the choice of the locomotive that is costlier in repairs or the one that is costlier in consumption?"

Plumping for the latter, Wiener noted that the European engines "were laid up for repairs two and a half times as long for the 4-4-0 engines, twice the time for the Consolidations, and no advantage either way for the Moguls."

Wiener singled out the American bogie design as "satisfactory" and "difficult to improve upon on rough roads. It swings easily, and requires next to no repairs."Even more to Baldwin's credit, smaller components or "fittings" [e.g., footplate lamps] on the Philadelphia engines were more robust than those provided by European builders to their export locomotives.

A counter-tendency occurred in frame strength. Bar frames, which virtually all North American locomotives used, "have broken many times, and the repairs, though easy, are costly, as it takes up to seven or eight men to handle such a frame when made solid, as is the case, and anything from 8 to 16 hundredweight [896-1,792 lb] of coal to mend it."

Construction of the PA a U seems to derived its energy from the desire of exporters in the Rio Grande do Sul state to reach the port of Montevideo in Uruguary. Montevideo was described in one 1890 report as much better than that of Porto Alegre, "which is practially useless, becaue the mouth of the harbor is blocked up with sand, and the entrance impossible sometimes for months together." Rev Eugene R Smith, DD (Ed), The Gospel in All Lands (New York: Hunt & Eaton, 1891), p. 497. [NB: the Methodist Episcopal Church Missionary Society published this guide to All Lands to inform its missionaries about what they would find in each country.]

Class Tanquary (Locobase 20809)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 17, p. 3. Works numbers were 11569-11572 in January 1891.

In many ways, this quartet of Eight-Wheelers show all of the traits of Baldwin narrow-gauge locomotives--quite typical. Awaiting the engines in this order was a railway with 2 1/2% ruling grades, 80 metre curve radii, tunnel and bridge "heights" (clearances?) of 4 metres (13.12 ft) and widths 3 metres (9.84 ft). The climate offered its challenges as well: 'Cab is to be thoroughly ventilated for hot weather and closeable for rainy weather."

An interesting sidelight on this particular order was the comment at the end of the specification on page 3. Locobase doesn't mean to pick on Baldwin by repeating sometimes caustic criticisms cast by the recipients. He doesn't find very much available comment on other companies' products, so he uses these uncomfortable moments to illustrate how complicated was the task of building locomotives, getting them out the door, and pleasing the operators.

In the case of this foursome, Baldwin received a letter from the PAU simply summarized as "The frames of several of these engines broke." Doubtless the unhappy customers wrote a longer complaint, but in the terse summary, a Baldwin employee added a 12 June 1893 note: "Frames for all of the engines were sent Extra [the Extra-Order department] made from a reconstructed [sic] design."

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Locobase ID11989 12211 11830 20809
RailroadPuerto Alegre and UruguyanaPorto Alegre a UruguayanaPorto Alegre a UruguayanaPorto Alegre a Uruguayana
Number in Class5144
Road Numbers22-24, 31-32/71-7341/9/1005-6, 8, 729, 32, 30, 31
Number Built5144
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & Co
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 7.83 / 2.39 8.50 / 2.59 7.83 / 2.39 7.83 / 2.39
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)19.33 / 5.8920.92 / 6.3819.25 / 5.8719.33 / 5.89
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)38.46 / 11.7249.25 / 15.0140.17 / 12.2438.46 / 11.72
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)33,080 / 15,00537,000 / 16,78331,000 / 14,06133,080 / 15,005
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)52,689 / 23,89959,000 / 26,76246,000 / 20,86552,689 / 23,899
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)40,000 / 18,14440,000 / 18,14440,000 / 18,144
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)92,689 / 42,04399,000 / 44,90692,689 / 42,043
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)1560 / 5.912000 / 7.581400 / 5.301600 / 5.91
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 3.85 / 4 3.85 / 4
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)28 / 1431 / 15.5026 / 1328 / 14
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)45 / 114354 / 137241 / 104145 / 1143
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10160 / 11130 / 9130 / 12.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)8" x 18" / 203x45715" x 18" / 381x45713" x 18" / 330x45714" x 18" / 203x457
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)14" x 18" / 356x457 / 356
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)5741 / 2604.0810,200 / 4626.658199 / 3719.018663 / 3929.48
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.76 3.63 3.78 3.82
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)152 - 1.75" / 44150 - 1.75" / 44152 - 1.75" / 44191 - 1.5" / 44
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m) 9.12 / 2.78 9.97 / 3.04 9.12 / 2.7810.83 / 2.78
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)66 / 6.1375 / 6.9766 / 6.13 / 6.13
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)10.70 / 0.9911.68 / 1.0910.88 / 1.0110.70 / 0.99
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)696 / 64.66755 / 70.14696 / 64.68 / 64.66
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)696 / 64.66755 / 70.14696 / 64.68 / 64.66
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume664.63205.08251.69
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation1873186914141391
Same as above plus superheater percentage1873186914141391
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area11,55012,0008580
Power L1419944203296
Power MT559.69526.73468.80

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