Sao Paulo Railway Beyer-Garratt Locomotives in Brazil


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Q (Locobase 561)

See also Wiener, 1930. Grate area in specs from Gavin Hamilton's excellent compilation of Garratt data posted at []

(6 September 2005); "2-4-0+0-4-2 Garratt Locomotive, Sao Paulo Ry", Locomotive Magazine, Volume XXII [22], Whole No 288 (15 August 1915), pp. 151-152; and the Brazilian site [], accessed 7 September 2005. See also Robert Tufnell, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Railway Locomotives (London: Quarto Publishing Ltd, 1986) and "Recent 'Garratt' Patent Locomotives", Railway Engineer, Volume 43, No. 5 (May 1922), pp. 184-186. Works numbers were 5892-5894 in 1915.

Except for the relatively tall drivers, this design followed classic Garratt lines that included a Belpaire firebox. A significant claim to fame for this order was that it was the first for a railway gauge larger than 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm). Originally the engines were delivered as coal burners and carried 2.75 tons (3.1 short tons) in the rear bunker. They were later converted to oil firing.

Tufnell notes that the Garratt design adopted here allowed the railroad to pull 1,000-ton passenger trains at 30 mph (48 kph) while staying within the weight limits imposed by the weakly built bridges. Maximum speeds reached 47 mph (76 kph). LM notes that the flexible Cortazzi trucks always led, thus "giving a very free running engine." Note, however, the relatively short range provided by the small bunker and water tank.

Obviously successful, this trio operated until 1950.


Class R1 (Locobase 566)

Data from [], last accessed 14 May 2010; and "San [sic] Paulo (Brazilian) Railway-Design 1124", Beyer-Garrrat Patent Articulated Locomotives (Manchester, England: Beyer-Peacock & Company Limited, 1931), archived on flickr's Historical Railway Images at [], pp. 70-71 et seq, . See also Robert Tufnell, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Railway Locomotives (London: Quarto Publishing Ltd, 1986). Works numbers were 6367-6372 in 1927.

According to Tufnell, these Double Prairie Garratts could hit 60 mph (97 kph)and pull a 500-ton train at 40 mph (64 kph). B-P's 1931 survey asserted that the sextet kept to the time table "with the greatest facility" and showing "by actual trial" able to run at top speed "without the least sign of losing due stability."

Soon after their arrival, however, the railway decided to increase the design's water capacity and, Locobase supposes, provide an even steadier ride at high speeds. So the FC de Sao Paulo converted the sextet into 4-6-2+2-6-4 Garratts; see Locobase 11254.

NB: Tube length is an estimate based on the calculation of tube surface area by subtracting reported firebox heating surface from reported total evaporative heating surface


Class R2 (Locobase 11254)

Data from [], last accessed 14 May 2010.

The original 2-6-2+2-6-2 Double Prairie Garratts delivered by Beyer, Peacock to the Sao Paulo are shown in Locobase 566.

After four years, the EF de SP enlarged the water tanks to hold a total of 4,000 Imperial gallons. To carry that weight, the front pony truck was replaced with a bogie; a similar bogie now rode under the fuel bunker as well.

As Double Pacifics (4-6-2+2-6-4) designated R2, they retained the big boiler and Belpaire firebox and the relatively tall drivers. Now, however, they were rated at a maximum of 113 kph (70 mph) , which put them in a relatively rare category of express passenger Garratts.

As such, the R2s ran until 1950, when the line was electrified.


Class U (Locobase 563)

Data from "Sao Paulo Railway-Design 1127", Beyer-Garrrat Patent Articulated Locomotives (Manchester, England: Beyer-Peacock & Company Limited, 1931), archived on flickr's Historical Railway Images at [], et seq, pp.22-23.(Thanks to Teemu Koivumaki whose 2023 email included a comprehensive spreadsheet of Brazilian steam locomotive builders, works numbers, and owners.) Works number was 5664 in 1913.

Second Garratt (Mogul Garratt) supplied to a Brazilian company. In this case, the "powerful and compact" engine was set to work on the Bragantina branch line, a section "abounding in steep grades and sharp curves". Ruling grades rose 2 1/2% and the sharpest curve bent around a radius of 394 feet.

25 years later, B-P delivered another engine with virtually the same data; see Locobase 564.


Class V (Locobase 564)

A[rthur] E[dward] Durrant, Garratt Locomotives of the World (revised edition) (Newton Abbott, UK: David & Charles, 1981), p. 86.. Works number was 6795 in 1933.

Much later than the first Double Mogul Garratt (Locobase 563) , this single engine repeated most of the principal dimensions of the earlier quintet..It also had a Belpaire firebox and Z-ported valves.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Middle Run Media

ClassQR1R2UV
Locobase ID561 566 11254 563 564
RailroadSao Paulo RailwaySao Paulo RailwaySao Paulo RailwaySao Paulo RailwaySao Paulo Railway
CountryBrazilBrazilBrazilBrazilBrazil
Whyte2-4-0+0-4-22-6-2+2-6-24-6-2+2-6-42-6-0+0-6-22-6-0+0-6-2
Number in Class36611
Road Numbers110-112/155-157155-160155-160812
Gauge5'3"5'3"5'3"MetreMetre
Number Built3611
BuilderBeyer, PeacockBeyer, PeacockFC de Sao PauloBeyer, PeacockBeyer, Peacock
Year19151927193119121936
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)12 / 3.6624 / 7.3219.41 / 5.9216 / 4.88
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)47.83 / 14.5851.17 / 15.6039.83 / 12.1428.50 / 8.69
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.25 0.47 0.49 0.56
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)58.83 / 17.9373 / 22.2573 / 22.2558.50 / 17.83
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)27,853 / 12,63441,440 / 18,79742,549 / 19,30023,520 / 10,66923,369 / 10,600
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)125,440 / 56,899248,640 / 112,781255,295 / 115,800140,448 / 63,706140,433 / 63,699
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)181,440 / 82,300354,480 / 160,790421,634 / 191,250180,880 / 82,046180,777 / 81,999
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)181,440 / 82,300354,480 / 160,790421,634 / 191,250180,880 / 82,046180,777 / 81,999
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)1800 / 6.823720 / 14.094797 / 18.173600 / 13.644198 / 15.90
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 2.50 / 2650 5.50 / 5 6.60 / 610.10 / 9.205 / 4.50
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)52 / 2669 / 34.5071 / 35.5039 / 19.5039 / 19.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)60 / 152466 / 167666 / 167642 / 106742 / 1067
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)162.40 / 11.20204.50 / 14.10204.50 / 14.10204.50 / 14.10204.50 / 14.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)16" x 24" / 406x610 (4)20" x 26" / 508x660 (4)20" x 25.98" / 508x660 (4)14" x 20" / 356x508 (4)14" x 20" / 356x508 (4)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)28,271 / 12823.5354,781 / 24848.2754,739 / 24829.2232,447 / 14717.7332,447 / 14717.73
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.44 4.54 4.66 4.33 4.33
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)183 - 2.125" / 54230 - 2.125" / 54230 - 2.126" / 54339 - 1.25" / 32339 - 1.25" / 32
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)24 - 5.25" / 13350 - 5.25" / 13350 - 5.236" / 133
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)10 / 3.0514 / 4.2715.58 / 4.7515.58 / 4.75
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)145 / 13.48205 / 19.04205.05 / 19.05139 / 12.91138.91 / 12.91
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)30 / 2.7949.20 / 4.5749.19 / 4.5729.80 / 2.7729.81 / 2.77
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1541 / 143.222954 / 274.442955 / 274.541865 / 173.261864 / 173.17
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)304 / 28.25668 / 62.06668 / 62.08
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1845 / 171.473622 / 336.503623 / 336.621865 / 173.261864 / 173.17
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume137.96156.23156.41261.69261.55
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation487210,06110,05960946096
Same as above plus superheater percentage565211,87211,87060946096
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area27,31649,46949,48128,42628,407
Power L1727211,88711,89751425139
Power MT511.22632.39616.42484.29484.05

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