China State Railways 2-10-2 Locomotives in China

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Qianjin (Progress) or QJ (Locobase 2159)



See also [] and [] for data.

The QJ Santa Fes were built in by far the biggest numbers of any post-Revolution locomotive class. Compared to the Russian-supplied FDs, the QJs had a much higher superheat ratio in a boiler about the same size. See Hans Schaefer's extended description of the QJ at (consulted in March 2002) in which he describes the boiler as a good feature of the design. Four arch tubes and a combustion chamber improve efficiency.

Production began in 1959 after some prototypes based on the Soviet LV class (Locobase 728) were tested and extensively modified in 1956. Annual production reached 325 locomotives in 1980 and ceased only in December 1988.

Schaefer comments: "The main trouble with the the engine is that it is in most parts a copy of an American 1930 engine, not state of the Art in the 1950s and 1960s". And he points out with the Chinese copying the Russian copy of the American engine, "things have not always improved." (Moreover, he notes elsewhere in this essay, the batches coming out of Datong in 1966-1976 (the years of the Cultural Revolution) were considered to have been of very low quality.)

Most troublesome is the poor counterbalancing and the undersized running gear. Bearings wear quickly and the engines use too much oil. Combined with an indifferent standard of maintenance and repair and one gets rough-running engines "hunting and bouncing along the line."

The list of demerits grows longer. The engine beats up its crews, who run the locomotive at less than full power and mean pressure to save parts. Sanding gear is too sparingly supplied, stokers either are broken or not installed at all, water pump and injector capacities are stingy and so on.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassQianjin (Progress) or QJ
Locobase ID2159
RailroadChina State Railways
Number in Class4708
Road Numbers
Number Built4708
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)21 / 6.40
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)50.43 / 15.37
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.42
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)86.15 / 26.26
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)44,092 / 20,000
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)220,499 / 100,017
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)262,396 / 119,021
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)7709 / 29.20
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)24.20 / 22
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)73 / 36.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)59.10 / 1500
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)213.20 / 14.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)25.59" x 31.5" / 650x800
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)63,251 / 28690.21
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.49
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)73.20 / 6.80
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2831 / 263
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1518 / 141
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4349 / 404
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume150.98
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation15,606
Same as above plus superheater percentage21,068
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area
Power L1
Power MT

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Wes Barris