Czech State Rwy 4-8-2 Locomotives in Czechoslovakia


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 475.1 (Locobase 1664)

Data from [], last accessed 1 September 2011. See also [] (March 2002). Deliveries ran 101-106 in 1947, 107-161 in 1948, 162-182 in 1949, 183-199 and 1100-1142 in 1950, 1143-1147 in 1951. 25 more were sent to North Korea (1148-1172). (Thanks to Petr Storer for his 4 April 2023 email correcting the provenance of this locomotive.)

Petr Storer noted that this postwar class gained its power from two cylinders, a significant difference from the three cylinders used in a 4-8-4 tank locomotive (Locobase 1124). Locobase is puzzled by a class ID virtually identical to such a design, but applied to a two-cylinder tender engine with a single trailing axle that entered service in 1947..

Manfred Schaefer commented that this class used all the latest innovations: Roller bearings on all axles and rods, pneumatic Hulson rocking grate, mechanical stoker, combustion chamber, thermic syphons, arch tubes, and Kylchap double-blast pipes. He adds that "The 475 had a fast acceleration with its small wheels, and could pull a lot, due to its four axles and 60 tons adhesive weight."

Tube diameters shown are the smaller, fire-side measurement. The water-side dimensions used in Anglo-American practice were 57 mm (2.25") for the small tubes, 152 mm (6") for the superheater flues. The first 70 locomotives had 570-mm diameter cylinders and developed a starting tractive effort of 39,000 lb. Two updates intended to save money and improve already good reliability proved successful. Because the 475.1s were hand-fired when delivered, the later installation of Standard "Stocker" mechianical stokers relieved the fireman of a historically demanding job while reducing waste. At the other end of the combustion path, Kylchap exhausts reduced back pressure in the exhaust.

The design's regal bearing and relatively large size was celebrated in its nickname: "Slechticna" or "Noblewoman". Reliable and powerful, 475.1s were popular among both engine crews and maintenance staff and gave way to diesels after decades in service.

Retirements began in th mid-1960s and were planned to end in a few years. But problems with their replacements led to some remaining in use until 1980. Several were preserved and


Class 476.001 (Locobase 5301)

[] (2 Jan 2003) for information about these locomotives:

Schaefer says this design, which used the 475 class's boiler. benefited from Andre Chapelon's guidance. Two LP cylinders were fitted outside driving the second axle, 1 HP cylinder was located between the frames. Test runs showed that these engines had 12 to 25% better fuel economy than the 498.0 engines. Cylinder power output was up to 2900 HP. Steam consumption was down to 6.7 (14.74 lb) to 7.0 kg (15.4 lb)/hp/hour.

The data for the cylinder dimensions comes from A[nthony] E[dward] Durrant, The steam locomotives of Eastern Europe (Abbot Newton: David & Charles, 1966) and results in a high LP/HP ratio. This, together with the typical difficulties in mastering the tricky coordination of HP and LP reverser gear as well as problems in reliability, contributed to the locomotive's unpopularity. Schaefer notes that such designs are usually more satisfactory on long, late-cutoff runs than on the hillier Czech profiles.

There were four built (works # 1905-1908), the last being donated to Josef Stalin as a gift.

These were later converted into 2-cylinder 475s.


Class 486.0 (Locobase 1667)

According to Hans Schaefer, [] (15 Sept 2003)), this Mountain design was put up against a 2-8-4 from CKD (Class 486.1 - Locobase 1668) for a four-axle replacement for the Class 387 and 399 Pacifics. It was the winner and an initial order for 9 was placed. The cession and takeover of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in October 1938 and March 1939 ended production.

In service, the class was known as "Zelen' Anton" (Green Anton).

When the design was revisited in 1946, changed circumstances led to a greatly altered product. See Locobase 1669.


Class 498.0 (Locobase 1669)

Although the Czech railways had stated a requirement for new express engines before World War II, only 9 of the 486 class were built before the Nazi takeover (Locobase 1669). After World War II, production was resumed. Initially, Skoda works had the whole contract (works numbers were 1706 to 174).

Much had changed, however, as Schaefer notes on his website [] (March 2002, confirmed 15 Sept 2003). The steel was of a less exotic quality because of expense. Cylinder diameter shrank and the boiler design was completely rethought. The tenders were new and axle loadings went up by 1 1/2 tonnes. By the time the design was ready for production in spring 1946, it had earned a new class designation -- 498.

In the event, Skoda produced 21 (894-914) and CKD's Slany Works manufactured 20 (works # 584-603) beginning in 1947. Early operations with the Class 498 suggest several changes, which were made to the design and all the locomotives rebuilt by 1951.

Once refitted, these thoroughly modern steam engines had bar frames, Kylchap blast pipe, thermic syphons, arch tubes, mechanical stoker, roller bearings on all axles, and a spring-adjustment system that allowed reduction of maximum axle load to 35,840 lb.They ran for many years at the head of most major expresses between Praha (Prague) and Kosice and Pilsen and Praha. reaching 93 mph in tests and 75 mph in normal operation. The last engine ran in 1972.


Class 498.1 (Locobase 1670)

Data from A[nthony] E[dward] Durrant, The steam locomotives of Eastern Europe (Abbot Newton: David & Charles, 1966). Schaefer [], last accessed 15 September 2003. Schaefer for firebox heating surface.

that this series was the final development of the 4-8-2 design that first saw light in 1934.

Like the 498s, they had bar frames, double Kylchap blast pipe, thermic syphons, arch tubes, mechanical stoker, roller bearings on all axles, main and side rods, and a spring-adjustment system that allowed reduction of maximum axle load to 35,840 lb.In a 1964 speed run, one of the class hit an even 100 mph (162 km/h).

This class was devoted particularly to heavy expresses over mountainous terrain, then to the cross-Czech international expresses from Germany to Hungary, and finally to the Bratislava region. Two of the class were still in service in 1977.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class475.1476.001486.0498.0498.1
Locobase ID1664 5301 1667 1669 1670
RailroadCzech State Rwy (CSD)Czech State Rwy (CSD)Czech State Rwy (CSD)Czech State Rwy (CSD)Czech State Rwy (CSD)
CountryCzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
Whyte4-8-24-8-24-8-24-8-24-8-2
Number in Class172394015
Road Numbers475.101-199, 475.1100-1147476.001-003486.001-486.009498.10-498.49
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built172394015
BuilderSkodaSkodaSkodaseveralSkoda
Year19471949193419461954
Valve GearHeusingerHeusingerHeusingerHeusingerWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)18.70 / 5.7018.01 / 5.4919 / 5.7919 / 5.7919 / 5.79
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)40.35 / 12.3039.86 / 12.1541.17 / 12.5541.17 / 12.55
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.46
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)68.14 / 20.7746.51 / 14.1871.33 / 21.74
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)40,124 / 18,20035,274 / 16,00038,581 / 17,50041,663 / 18,898
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)138,880 / 61,000145,064 / 65,800143,135 / 64,925161,729 / 73,359166,656 / 75,594
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)230,052 / 102,700237,438 / 107,700229,153 / 103,942239,680 / 108,717254,239 / 115,321
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)141,647 / 64,250148,150 / 67,200178,131 / 80,799
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)371,699 / 166,950377,303 / 171,142432,370 / 196,120
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8448 / 328400 / 31.82
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 9.90 / 916.50 / 15
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)58 / 2960 / 3060 / 3067 / 33.5069 / 34.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)68.90 / 175063.90 / 162472 / 183072.10 / 183172.10 / 1831
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)232.10 / 16290.10 / 20232.10 / 16232.10 / 16232.10 / 16
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20.87" x 26.77" / 530x68019.69" x 25.98" / 500x660 (1)21.65" x 26.77" / 550x680 (3)19.69" x 26.81" / 500x681 (3)19.69" x 26.81" / 500x681 (3)
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22.83" x 25.98" / 580x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)33,386 / 15143.6533,433 / 15164.9751,572 / 23392.6942,662 / 19351.1842,662 / 19351.18
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.16 4.34 2.78 3.79 3.91
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)101 - 2.008" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)33 - 5.63" / 143
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)17.22 / 5.2517.22 / 5.2516.40 / 519.69 / 6
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)260.39 / 24.20205.59 / 19.10283.09 / 26.30
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)46.70 / 4.3446.72 / 4.3451.99 / 4.8350.59 / 4.7052.21 / 4.85
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1902 / 176.802164 / 2012743 / 254.842773 / 257.622459 / 228.44
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)681 / 63.30681 / 63.30969 / 90959 / 89.13794 / 73.79
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2583 / 240.102845 / 264.303712 / 344.843732 / 346.753253 / 302.23
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume179.45472.69160.32195.66173.50
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation10,83913,55312,06711,74212,118
Same as above plus superheater percentage13,65716,80615,20414,79515,026
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area76,15060,12481,474
Power L123,46924,46521,687
Power MT1490.211333.991147.55

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