Egyptian State 4-4-0 Locomotives in Egypt


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Class 14 (Locobase 10521)

Data from "The Egyptian Government Railways and Locomotives," The Locomotive Magazine, Vol XI (15 August 1905), p. 131. See also DeGolyer, Volume 39, p. 95+ Works numbers were 18129-18131, 18149-18155 in September 1900.

A classic North American Turn-of-the-Century profile belies this class's service use at the head of Egyptian passenger trains. One of the class -- 607 -- was supplied as a four-cylinder Vauclain four-cylinder compound with the safety valve set at 180 psi.


Class Class 16 (Locobase 2676)

Data from "Express Passenger Locomotive, Egyptian State Railways," The Locomotive Magazine, Vol VII (April 1902), p. 55; and E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501. See also Frederick Harvey Trevithick's detailed assessments of "British, Belgian, and American Locomotives in Egypt" Engineer, Volume 93 (4, 11, and 18 April 1902), pp. 342-343 (Part 1), 361 (leading article/editorial), 367 (Part 2), and 394-396 (Memoranda from Major Johnstone, President of the Railway Board and further comment by Trevithick). Neilson's works numbers were 5803-5812 in 1901. Henschel supplied 15 and Austrian firms another 10 in 1902.

Cairo-Alexandria express engine that reflected the attempts of superintendent HF Trevithick (grandson of the pioneer) to reduce water consumption by experiments with feedwater heating. Ahrons also wrote that the design introduced the four0-wheel bogie to passenger engines in Egypt as a production standard. The firebox was raised and the builders extended the smokeboxes to improve draft and allow for better spark-arrestment. OS Nock (RWC III, pl 146) says these were fast and successful engines and that Trevithick's experiments with them eventually led to superheating.

They were built in equal numbers by Neilson, Reid & Company (works numbers 5803-5812) in 1901 and by Henschel and Sohn in 1902.


Class Class 18 (Locobase 20261)

Data from E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501.

Ahrons said that this class repeated many of the features of the Class 16 (Locobase 2756), but a longer stroke increased cylinder volume offsetting the taller drivers' effect on tractive effort.


Class Class 19 (Locobase 20262)

Data from E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501.

Two years after ten tall-drivered versions of the Class 16s came from Great Britain (Locobase 20261), a German builder supplied a nonet of similar locomotives. They had larger fireboxes (but similar grate areas). Cost per locomotive came to 2,432 pounds sterling each.


Class Class 26 (Locobase 20274)

Data from E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501.

This single Eight-wheeler was clearly the prototype for the more numerous Class 28 (Locobase 10611). Ahrons commented that this trial horse was deliberately equipped with relatively small cylinders and compensated by setting the boiler pressure considerably higher. The ESR later retrofitted this engine with 17" (432 mm) cylinders, perhaps at the same time they took delivery of similar locomotives from Great Britain (Locobase 20275).


Class Class 27 (Locobase 20275)

Data from E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501.

At the same time the ESR was exploring different combinations of boiler size and cylinder volume, they purchased fifteen of these Eight-wheelers from a British builder. The engines were the first ESR locomotives to carry boilers pressed to 180 psi.


Class Class 28 "Lady Cromer" (Locobase 10611)

Data from "Four-Coupled Passenger Engine for Egyptian State Rys," The Locomotive Magazine, Vol XIII (15 February 1907), p. 35. See also Dr. R. Sanzin, "Die Lokomotiven auf der Intertionalen Austellung in Mailand 1906, 4. 2/4 gekuppelte Schnellzuglokomotive der aegyptischen Staatsbahnen ...", Zeitschrift des Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Architeckten-Vereines, Vol LVIII Nr. 49 (7 December 1906), p 681; and E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501.

In 1906, the EAR went to Henschel and Sohn for more express locomotives. The design was similar to those engines supplied by Henschel and by Neilson in 1902 (see Locobase 2676) especially in the boiler and heavy outside frame with inside bearings on the bogie, but had bigger grates, greater cylinder volume because of a longer stroke, weighed more, and had a longer wheelbase. Ahrons reported that each of the locomotives cost 2,568 pounds sterling.

They served the same Cairo-Alexandria express run (129 miles/208 km), pulling 200-ton trains over the distance in 3 hours total time, which included two stops.

The later engines had a relatively complex feedwater heater, which the LM report fully describes, that was credited with raising the temperature of incoming water to 246 deg F (119 deg C) while the engine ran at 50-55 mph (81-89 kph); fuel consumption was reported to have dropped 20%. LM also noted that "[b]y disconnecting the steam pump, removing the water inlet and outlets and connecting live steam from the regulator to the heater in the smokebox, which can be coupled direct to the cylinders, the smokebox heater can very easily [sic] be converted into a very efficient superheater."

It was already clear to most engineers that the firetube superheater being perfected by Schmidt would be a better choice and 712 was so fitted in 1911. Still, the arrangement seems ingenious enough.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassClass 14Class 16Class 18Class 19Class 26
Locobase ID10521 2676 20261 20262 20274
RailroadEgyptian StateEgyptian StateEgyptian StateEgyptian StateEgyptian State
CountryEgyptEgyptEgyptEgyptEgypt
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class10351091
Road Numbers602-611612-621, 622-631664-656657-655
Gauge85 cmStdStdStdStd
Number Built10351091
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoseveralNorth British
Year19001901190319051906
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 9.25 / 2.82 9.25 / 2.82 9.25 / 2.8210.01 / 3.05
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.25 / 6.7822.25 / 6.7822.25 / 6.7822.25 / 6.7822.97 / 7
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.38 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.44
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)33,600 / 15,241
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)62,160 / 28,19565,884 / 29,88572,352 / 32,81874,956 / 34,00077,336 / 35,079
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)96,992 / 43,995101,052 / 45,836107,744 / 48,872111,104 / 50,396115,249 / 52,276
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)58,000 / 26,30872,240 / 32,76881,088 / 36,78175,544 / 34,26676,383 / 34,647
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)154,992 / 70,303173,292 / 78,604188,832 / 85,653186,648 / 84,662191,632 / 86,923
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3000 / 11.3636003600 / 13.643600 / 13.643601 / 13.64
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)52 / 2655 / 27.5060 / 3062 / 3164 / 32
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)73.50 / 186775 / 190581 / 205781 / 205775 / 1905
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)160 / 12.40160 / 11160 / 11160 / 11200.20 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 24" / 457x61017.99" x 24.02" / 457x61018" x 26" / 457x66018" x 26" / 457x66015.55" x 25.98" / 395x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)14,388 / 6526.2914,097 / 6394.3014,144 / 6415.6214,144 / 6415.6214,254 / 6465.51
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.32 4.67 5.12 5.30 5.43
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)250 - 1.75" / 44238 - 1.73" / 44
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m) 9.81 / 2.9910.50 / 3.20
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)119 / 11.06126.60 / 11.76114.96 / 10.68127.30 / 11.83137.99 / 12.82
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)21 / 1.9521.35 / 1.9821.33 / 1.9821.12 / 1.9623.68 / 2.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1219 / 113.251235 / 114.741224 / 113.711236 / 114.831247 / 115.85
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1219 / 113.251235 / 114.741224 / 113.711236 / 114.831247 / 115.85
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume172.45174.77159.84161.41218.37
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation33603416341333794741
Same as above plus superheater percentage33603416341333794741
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area19,04020,25618,39420,36827,626
Power L150305287507452828488
Power MT356.80353.83309.22310.71483.94

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassClass 27Class 28 "Lady Cromer"
Locobase ID20275 10611
RailroadEgyptian StateEgyptian State
CountryEgyptEgypt
Whyte4-4-04-4-0
Number in Class1531
Road Numbers680-694695-724
GaugeStdStd
Number Built1531
BuilderNorth BritishHenschel & Sohn
Year19051906
Valve GearStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 9.25 / 2.8210.01 / 3.05
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.25 / 6.7823 / 7.01
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.42 0.44
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)74,368 / 33,73376,160 / 34,546
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)110,880 / 50,294113,680 / 51,564
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)77,280 / 35,05478,008 / 35,384
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)188,160 / 85,348191,688 / 86,948
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3600 / 13.643564 / 13.50
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 5.50 / 5
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)62 / 3163 / 31.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)75 / 190575 / 1905
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40179.80 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17" x 26" / 432x66017.99" x 25.98" / 457x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)15,329 / 6953.1317,134 / 7771.86
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.85 4.44
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)238 - 1.614" / 41
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)11 / 3.35
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)126 / 11.71141.10 / 13.11
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)21.30 / 1.9823.47 / 2.18
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1235 / 114.741250 / 116.13
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1235 / 114.741250 / 116.13
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume180.81163.54
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation38344220
Same as above plus superheater percentage38344220
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area22,68025,370
Power L161435750
Power MT364.22332.89

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