Egyptian State 4-4-2 Locomotives in Egypt


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 740/6 (Locobase 14723)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 63, pp. 55+; and "American-built Locomotives for the Egyptian State Railways", Locomotive Magazine, Volume XXVII [27], No 352 (15 December 1921), pp. 314-315. Works numbers were 53362 in June 1920; 53806, 53869-53870 in October; 53946, 53987, 53991, 54098, 54103, 54130 in November; 54187-54189 in December; and 54393, 54584-54586 in January 1921.

It's surprising to see a tall-drivered Atlantic design being built in such quantities so late in the steam era, but here they were. Using a copper Belpaire firebox , the design reflected British practice in being mounted on a plate frame and being stopped by vacuum brakes. LM praised the "builders' enterprise and organization" as they bid successfully for "machines differing so greatly from normal American practice."

Steam admission came through 10" (254 mm) piston valves. Because the trailing truck was mounted without any provision for lateral play, the rigid wheelbase measured a long 17 ft 4 in (5.28 m). The specs required the locomotive to haul a gross load around a minimum curve of 600 metres (1,969 feet) radius or 3 degrees.


Class Class 10 (Locobase 10816)

Data from "The Egyptian Government Railway and Locomotives", The Locomotive Magazine, Volume XI, No 153 (15 May 1905), p 79. See also "Egyptian Experimental Locomotives", Engineer, Volume 93 (7 February 1902), pp. 137-138; "Brooks Locomotive for the Egyptian State Railway," Railway Master Mechanic, Vol XXIV, p. 341; Locomotive for Egypt," The Railway Age, Volume (13 July 1900), pp 31-32. Works number was 3493.

This "convertible" locomotive was delivered as an Atlantic, but could easily remove the rear trailing wheels and replace it with a third set of drivers. The LM report notes that the Ten-wheeler needed also to reduce the size of all drivers to either 60" or 69". The driving wheelbase increased to 14 ft 7 in (4.44 m) and adhesion weight increased by 11 long tons to 48 tons 4 cwt (107,968 lb/48,974 kg) while total engine weight increased less than 250 lb.

It was fitted with a Player-Belpaire boiler that had almost no external pipes, in deference to British-Egyptian practice.


Class Class 20 (Locobase 20263)

Data from E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501.

This decade of deGlehn compounds were priced at 4,800 pounds sterling each. They used a relatively high compounding ratio while sampling the divided drive qualities of the deGlehn design. Another difference from most Eyptian State locomotives was the installation of larger-diameter, internally finned Serve tubes in the boiler.

By the end of 1911, this ten-engine set had run 1,796,000 miles (2,891,560 km) and averaged 45.2 lb/mile (12.74 kg/km) in coal consumption. Underlining coal's demand on steam-era railroad logistics, the average calculates to about 40,590 short tons (36,241 long tons/36,822 metric tons) passing through the ten fireboxes in about six years.


Class Class 24 (Locobase 20267)

Data from E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501.

Both this Atllantic and the three-cylinder locomotive shown in Locobase 20268 tried out different improvements to the arrangement's configuration. In this case, the builder retained the double frame combined with a Belpaire firebox.and a "coned" third boiler course "after the manner of the Great Western engines of 1903."

In both cases, the coupled wheel base seems quite short.

Its particular layout was not repeated.


Class Class 25 (Locobase 20268)

Data from E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501.

Both this Atllantic and the more traditional two-cylinder locomotive shown in Locobase 20267 tried out different improvements to the arrangement's configuration. In this case, a bar frame proved necessary to make room for the third cylinder inside

In both cases, the coupled wheel base seems quite short.

Its particular layout was not repeated even though, "as might be expected", the three-cylinder engine "showed great starting and accelerating power with heavy trains."


Class Class 29 (Locobase 20276)

Data from E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (11/27/1914), pp 499-501.

Described by Ahrons as "very handsome", this class pulled local trains on the Cairo-Matarich line.


Class Class 35 (Locobase 2748)

OS Nock (RWC IV, pl 87) gives only total heating service and does not break it down into evaporative and superheated. For more detail see "4-4-2 Superheater Express Locomotive, Egyptian State Railways", Locomotive Magazine, Volume 20 (15 January 1914), pp. 6-7. See also E L Ahrons, "Thirty Years of Locomotive Progress in Egypt", Engineer, Volume 118 (27 November 1914), pp 499-501; and See also RAS Hennessey, Atlantic - The Well Beloved Engine (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2002), p 44. Works numbers were 5096-5100 in 1913.

Intended to run the 130 miles between Cairo and Alexandria at 60 mph with 450 tons under any conditions, these engines were designed by the railway's Chief Mechanical Engineer RG Peckitt. The locomotive had a relatively short rigid wheelbase despite the long Belpaire boiler. Clothed in a pink paint scheme, they looked Anglo-German. The mixed parentage showed in the provision of reversing screw gear that could be set up on either side in acknowledgment of the ESR's switch of the driver's position from the right side to the left side.

Roger Hennessey's caption under a photograph showed him quite taken by 735's appearance. It had "well-proportioned" proportioned lines that were "later enhanced witha restraint of additions (headlight, turbo-dynamics) although the clerestory cab roof was lost." He needed not quite one more sentence to underline his opinion: "A sensible engine for a level terrain of adhesion-enhancing sand."


Class Class 9 (Locobase 2675)

Data from See also "Egyptian Experimental Locomotives", Engineer, Volume 93 (7 February 1902), pp. 137-138.

Engineer thought this was an ideal comparison in the offing. Two "convertible" 4-4-2s, one British (this entry) and one American (the Brooks locomotive in Locobase 10816) built to the same specification would "furnish an excellent opportunity to the railway officials to see really which are the better engines, considered from every standpoint."

Like the Brooks locomotive, the Dubs entry had a Belpaire firebox. Unlike the Brooks, which had a bar frame, the British engine used the traditional plate frame. Valves were inside on the American engine, outside (and over the cylinders) on the British locomotive.

The 601 was later converted to a 4-6-0 with 60" (1,524 mm) drivers.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class740/6Class 10Class 20Class 24Class 25
Locobase ID14723 10816 20263 20267 20268
RailroadEgyptian StateEgyptian StateEgyptian StateEgyptian StateEgyptian State
CountryEgyptEgyptEgyptEgyptEgypt
Whyte4-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-24-4-2
Number in Class20101010
Road Numbers740-759 / 6, 9-25600
GaugeStdStdStd885 mmStd
Number Built20101010
BuilderBaldwinBrooksSFCM
Year19201900190519051906
Valve GearWalschaertStephensonWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 6.83 / 2.08 7.08 / 2.16 7.05 / 2.15 6.62 / 2.02 6.62 / 2.02
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)31.04 / 9.4626.75 / 8.1527.89 / 8.5027.37 / 8.3427.58 / 8.41
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.22 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.24
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)57.12 / 17.4154.12 / 16.50
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)40,320 / 18,28942,000 / 19,051
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)80,500 / 36,51482,992 / 37,64574,704 / 33,88576,160 / 34,54676,160 / 34,546
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)166,000 / 75,296149,968 / 68,024150,223 / 68,140141,120 / 64,011143,360 / 65,027
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)126,350 / 57,31191,000 / 41,27790,081 / 40,86078,400 / 35,56278,400 / 35,562
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)292,350 / 132,607240,968 / 109,301240,304 / 109,000219,520 / 99,573221,760 / 100,589
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6600 / 254800 / 18.185064 / 13.643600 / 13.643600 / 13.64
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 8.80 / 8 6.50 / 6 4.40
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)67 / 33.5069 / 34.5062 / 3163 / 31.5063 / 31.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)78 / 198178 / 198180.30 / 204075 / 190575 / 1905
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)160 / 11180 / 12.40227.70 / 15.70180 / 12.40227 / 15.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 28" / 508x71120" x 26" / 508x66013.39" x 25.2" / 340x64018" x 26" / 457x66013.75" x 24" / 349x610 (3)
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22.05" x 25.2" / 560x640
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)19,528 / 8857.7620,400 / 9253.3015,912 / 7217.5717,185 / 7794.9917,510 / 7942.41
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.12 4.07 4.69 4.43 4.35
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)156 - 2" / 51260 - 2" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)28 - 5.375" / 137
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)15.50 / 4.7215.09 / 4.60
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)187 / 17.37157.80 / 14.66167.92 / 15.60140.25 / 13.03138.50 / 12.87
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)30.90 / 2.8727.33 / 2.5429.71 / 2.7624 / 2.2323.71 / 2.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2054 / 190.822193 / 203.742366 / 219.801676 / 155.711672 / 155.33
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)524 / 48.68
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2578 / 239.502193 / 203.742366 / 219.801676 / 155.711672 / 155.33
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume201.75231.97576.07218.87270.24
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation49444919676543205382
Same as above plus superheater percentage59334919676543205382
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area35,90428,40438,23525,24531,440
Power L115,74173818771698510,844
Power MT862.18392.14517.69404.39627.81

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassClass 29Class 35Class 9
Locobase ID20276 2748 2675
RailroadEgyptian StateEgyptian StateEgyptian State
CountryEgyptEgyptEgypt
Whyte4-4-2T4-4-24-4-2
Number in Class1051
Road Numbers565-574735601
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built1051
BuilderNorth BritishBerliner MaschinenbauDubs & Co
Year190719131900
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 8.50 / 2.59 6.82 / 2.087 / 2.13
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)28.75 / 8.7630.91 / 9.4226.83 / 8.18
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.30 0.22 0.26
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)28.75 / 8.76187.01 / 57
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)80,696 / 36,60378,484 / 35,60079,520 / 36,070
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)152,656 / 69,244161,621 / 73,310143,808 / 65,230
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)144,888 / 65,72089,040 / 40,388
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)152,656 / 69,244306,509 / 139,030232,848 / 105,618
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)1800 / 6.826600 / 254800 / 18.18
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)67 / 33.5065 / 32.5066 / 33
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)69 / 175378 / 198178 / 1981
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40184.20 / 12.70180 / 12.40
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17" x 24" / 432x61020" x 25.98" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)15,380 / 6976.2620,860 / 9461.9520,400 / 9253.30
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.25 3.76 3.90
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)160 - 2.008" / 51242 - 2" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)30 - 4.921" / 125
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)15.42 / 4.7014.42 / 4.40
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)121 / 11.24185.14 / 17.20180.40 / 16.76
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)21.30 / 1.9830.89 / 2.8726 / 2.42
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1328 / 123.381922 / 178.601996 / 185.43
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)694 / 64.50
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1328 / 123.382616 / 243.101996 / 185.43
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume210.63203.46211.13
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation383456904680
Same as above plus superheater percentage383472264680
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,78043,31132,472
Power L1634623,0517173
Power MT346.751295.01397.73

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