Bavarian State 2-8-0 Locomotives in Germany


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class E I (Locobase 4852)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 22, p. 172; and Martin Niklas (replying on 27 April 2001 to a question from "Thomas") on Railroad.net ([]), gives the data and details of these Consolidations. Works numbers were 17017-17018.

Niklas says that the Bavarian railway wanted to test both the bar frame construction and the Vauclain compound arrangement (in which high- and low-pressure cylinders on each side drove a common crosshead). Each set of one HP and one LP cylinder shared an 11 1/2" (292 mm) piston valve.

Although painted green and fitted with buffers, these were classic American turn-of-the-century engines. As such, they weren't particularly satisfactory to their German hosts. Their iron fireboxes were soon replaced with the more typical copper units and other boiler fittings were adapted because of the difficulty of getting spare parts.

Each ran for less than 20 years, mostly on mixed-traffic service. The bar frame, however, made a big impression, notes Niklas, and was adopted by both the Bavarian and the later Deutsche Reichsbahngesellschaft.


Class E I / BR 56.3 (Locobase 6359)

Christian Lindecke's website [] (visited 20 Nov 2004) (translated by Google) for data and information. See also Reder (1974, p 209).

This 4-cylinder compound design was a trial by von Helmholtz based on the Sonderman principle (like the Vauclain compound arrangement, these engines had the high and low-pressure cylinders operating off the same valve).. The compound proportions look way out of whack; the LP cylinders seem much too big. On the other hand, the boiler looks too small.

In any event, only these two were built and while they were given DRG numbers in 1925, the duo were out of service by the end of the decade.


Class E I / BR 56.3 (Locobase 6360)

Christian Lindecke's website [] (visited 20 Nov 2004) (translated by Google) for data and information. Unlike many of the Consolidations built for the K.Bay.Sts.B, this class was simple-expansion only with a comparatively short stroke. The drive was on the third axle from cylinders positioned behind the carrying axle. The carrying axle was linked to the first driving set through a Krauss Helmholz truck. Lindecke says the main rod was derived from the Sonderman design and was unusually long.

Performance was quite satisfactory, pulling 890 tons on the level at 50 km/h (31 mph), and 1,390 tons at 40 km/h (25 mph). Climbing a 1/2% grade at 25 km/h (16 mph), the locomotive pulled 840 tons. (Reder -- 1974, p 184) commented that this class's use was very limited, but that does not square with the fact that another 48 were procured 4 years later; see Locobase 5933.

Although 42 were carried into the DRG era and given numbers 53 312-353, the class was soon phased out.


Class E I / BR 56.3 (Locobase 5933)

Christian Lindecke's website [] (visited 28 Nov 2003) (translated by Google) for data and information, supplemented by The Railway Engineer (April 1905), p 109.

These were slightly larger versions of the 1895 class (Locobase 6360).

Although 42 were carried into the DRG era and given numbers 53 312-353, the class was soon phased out.


Class G 4/5 H 1915/BR 56 9 (Locobase 12579)

Data from Christian Lindecke's website [] (visited 28 November 2003, no longer active) (translated by Google and "Baureihe 56.9" from Albert Gieseler's Dampfmaschinen und Lokomotiven website at [], last accessed 14 May 2011 Maffei works numbers were 4552-4562 in 1915 and 4563-4586 in 1916. Krauss-Munchen works numbers were 7077-7086 in 1916.

These were the first production batch of the G 4/5 H series of superheated Consolidations, which supplanted the G 4/5 N (Nassdampf) design that had entered service in 1905 (Locobase 10566). (Bayern Eisenbahn class IDs showed the number of coupled axles/number of total axles (4/5) and superheater (H for Heizdampf). All four cylinders drove on the second axle. The leading truck traversed through an Adams axle. It used a bar frame, which improved access to the two inside cylinders.

Maffei produced 210 and Krauss 20 locomotives from 1915 to 1919. Initially, they were supplied with the superheater surface shown in the specs (taken from the US MRS guide), but Lindecke wrote that later series had more superheat and showed 664 sq ft (61.7 sq m).

[See Locobases 6031 and 12580 for the latter two boiler layouts that made up this class.]

In 1919, 60 of the class were sent to France and Belgium as war reparations. The 169 were classed by the DRG as BR 56 8 to 56 11. Very few lasted beyond 1935 and only 3 survived to be listed in the postwar RMS guide. These were retired in 1947.


Class G 4/5 H-1918/BR 56 9-11 (Locobase 12580)

Data from [], last accessed 14 May 2011. Works numbers 5006-5030 in 1918.

Bavaraian State's third version of their G 4/5H compound Consolidation tinkered once again with the tube flue distribution, with the tube count increasing by six over the 1916 batches (Locobase 6031) and the flue count decreasing by two. The change reduced superheating area slightly. Again, there were no changes in the Belpaire firebox.

[See Locobases 12579 and 6031 for the two earlier variants.]

The 1918 batch of twenty-five of this design went to the Imperial Government Railways, which deployed them in Warsaw. All of them reverted to the DRG and were renumbered 56 1101-1125.


Class G 4/5 N/BR 56.4 (Locobase 10566)

Data from "Krauss Locomotive No 5,000," The Locomotive Magazine, Vol XII (14 July 1906), p. 119. See also Christian Lindecke's Lokodex ([], last accessed 24 June 1906) and the Wikipedia entry [] (last accessed 24 June 1906).

Production of this firm's 5,000th engine came in the frame of one of the Consolidations in this class, which was based on the more numerous E1 class that had been produced a few years earlier. (See Locobases 6360, 6359, 4852, and 5922). This septet had a larger, higher-pitched boiler and grate, slightly larger drivers, and higher weight. Although the new boiler placement above the drivers offered possibilities, Krauss doesn't seem to have taken full advantage of its new position. It was also the first class be given the new designation based on its service (Guterslok), driven axles/total axles, and whether it used superheated (H) or saturated (N) steam.

[Note: Two German sources give the heating surface as 179.7 sq m. but the article from the 1906 LM refers to a catalogue published by Krauss celebrating its 5,000th locomotive and says the data came from this source.]

Three of the class were lost in World War One, leaving four to be absorbed by the DRG in 1925. They did not remain in service long after their redesignation as BR 56 4 and were retired in 1927. Wikipedia reports the speculation by observers that the DRG's head of construction Richard Paul Wagner disliked a "south-German", four-cylinder compound.


Class G4/5 H -1916/BR 56 9-11 (Locobase 6031)

Data from US Military Railway Service Equipment Data Book -- German and from MRS-German Locomotives supplied in May 2004 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection; and "Baureihe 56.9-10" in his Dampfmaschinen und Lokomotiven website at [], last accessed 28 June 2023. Works numbers were 4568-4586, 4640-4679 in 1916; 4790-5829 in 1917.

After Maffei and Krauss had produced 45 engines using boilers that had 195 small tubes and 24 flues ( Locobase 12579), Maffei turned out more than a hundred compound Consolidations using a new boiler layout. Retaining the original Belpaire firebox dimensions, the builder removed 33 small tubes to make room for eight more flues. Greater superheater area more than compensated for the relatively small decrease in evaporative heating surface area. Together with an impressively robust boiler pressure setting, the design proved to be the most powerful 2-8-0.

Military necessity diverted ten of these locomotives to the MGD based in occupied Belgium's capital city of Brussels.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Middle Run Media

ClassE IE I / BR 56.3E I / BR 56.3E I / BR 56.3G 4/5 H 1915/BR 56 9
Locobase ID4852 6359 6360 5933 12579
RailroadBavarian StateBavarian StateBavarian StateBavarian StateBavarian State
CountryGermanyGermanyGermanyGermanyGermany
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class22124845
Road Numbers2085-20862063-64 / 56 310-3112051-62 / 56 301-3092065-2084, 87-99, 2116-305501-5535,5536-5545/BR 56 901- 912, 928-937
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built22124845
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoKraussKraussKraussseveral
Year18991897189518991915
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertHeusingerHeusinger
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)13.42 / 4.0913.45 / 4.1015.75 / 4.80
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)21.65 / 6.6020.67 / 6.3023.95 / 7.30
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.62 0.65 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)51.51 / 15.7049.05 / 14.95
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)30,865 / 14,00030,093 / 13,65029,762 / 13,50029,762 / 13,50034,613 / 15,700
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)119,931 / 54,400120,372 / 54,600119,049 / 54,000119,049 / 54,000138,671 / 62,900
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)138,009 / 62,600142,198 / 64,500141,978 / 64,400141,978 / 64,400167,331 / 75,900
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)97,003 / 44,000 / 35,250
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)235,012 / 106,600
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4805 / 18.205333 / 20.20
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 7.20 / 6.50 7.70 / 7
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)50 / 2550 / 2550 / 2550 / 2558 / 29
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)50 / 127046.10 / 117046.10 / 117046.10 / 117051.20 / 1300
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)174 / 12191.50 / 13.20174 / 12174 / 12232.10 / 16
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)14.02" x 25.98" / 356x66014.57" x 22.05" / 370x56021.26" x 22.05" / 540x56021.26" x 22.05" / 540x56015.75" x 24.41" / 400x620
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)24.02" x 25.98" / 610x66027.95" x 22.05" / 710x56024.02" x 24.41" / 610x620
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)22,534 / 10221.2625,992 / 11789.7931,974 / 14503.1831,974 / 14503.1832,633 / 14802.10
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.32 4.63 3.72 3.72 4.25
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)270 - 2.008" / 51229 - 2.047" / 52195 - 2.047" / 52
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)24 - 5.315" / 135
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)12.47 / 3.8014.76 / 4.5014.60 / 4.45
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)166.84 / 15.50121.59 / 11.30129.17 / 12
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)33.15 / 3.0826.15 / 2.4326.15 / 2.4326.15 / 2.4335.52 / 3.30
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1910 / 177.451724 / 160.201719 / 159.801724 / 160.202010 / 186.70
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)474 / 44
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1910 / 177.451724 / 160.201719 / 159.801724 / 160.202484 / 230.70
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume411.45405.17189.74190.29365.17
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation57685008455045508244
Same as above plus superheater percentage57685008455045509811
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area29,03023,28435,677
Power L12920219110,708
Power MT214.71160.51680.95

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Middle Run Media

ClassG 4/5 H-1918/BR 56 9-11G 4/5 N/BR 56.4G4/5 H -1916/BR 56 9-11
Locobase ID12580 10566 6031
RailroadBavarian StateBavarian StateBavarian State
CountryGermanyGermanyGermany
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class90759
Road Numbers5636-5695, 5211-5235/BR 56 1010-BR 10342131-2137 / BR 56 401-4065517-5535, 5556-5695,5150-5159, /BR 56 801-56 809
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built90759
BuilderseveralKraussMaffei
Year191819051916
Valve GearHeusingerWalschaertHeusinger
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) / 4.8015.75 / 4.80
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.95 / 7.3023.29 / 7.1023.95 / 7.30
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)49.05 / 14.95 / 15.4949.05 / 14.95
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)35,274 / 16,00031,747 / 14,40035,053 / 15,900
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)141,096 / 64,000123,238 / 55,900140,214 / 63,600
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)169,756 / 77,000142,859 / 64,800168,874 / 76,600
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5333 / 20.204805 / 18.205333 / 20.20
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 7.20 / 7 7.70 / 7
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)59 / 29.5051 / 25.5058 / 29
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)51.20 / 130050 / 127051.20 / 1300
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)232.10 / 16174 / 12232.10 / 16
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)15.75" x 24.41" / 400x62021.26" x 24.02" / 540x61015.75" x 24.41" / 400x620
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)24.02" x 25.2" / 610x64024.02" x 24.41" / 610x620
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)32,944 / 14943.1632,114 / 14566.6832,633 / 14802.10
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.28 3.84 4.30
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)168 - 2.047" / 52162 - 2.047" / 52
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)30 - 5.315" / 13532 - 5.236" / 133
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)14.60 / 4.4514.60 / 4.45
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)129.12 / 12118.04 / 10.97129.17 / 12
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)35.51 / 3.3030.67 / 2.8535.52 / 3.30
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1926 / 179.302175 / 202.141932 / 179.50
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)624 / 58664 / 61.70
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2550 / 237.302175 / 202.142596 / 241.20
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume349.91220.39351.00
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation824253378244
Same as above plus superheater percentage10,220533710,388
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area37,16120,53937,775
Power L112,270406313,233
Power MT766.87290.73832.26

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