Midland 0-6-0 Locomotives in Great_Britain


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1102 (Locobase 8451)

Data and information from [], accessed 28 May 2007, which took its information in turn from Radford, J.B. Derby Works and Midland locomotives: the story of the works, its men, and the locomotives they built. 1971. Neilson delivered the first 25 (1102-1126) in 1874--works numbers 1911-1920 in 1874 and 1997-2011 in 1885. Vulcan supplied the other 15 as their works numbers

These were the first of a long line of six-coupled tanks produced first by outside builders and later by Derby itself. Their field of service was the challenging grades and curves of the coal-mining areas of South Wales.

When Derby began providing tanks two years later, they adopted a somewhat smaller boiler; see Locobase 8452.


Class 1357 (Locobase 3011)

Data from [JBH, Locomotive Engineer, St Pancras Hotel], "Midland Express Engines", English Mechanic and World of Science, Volume 30, No 756 (19 September 1879), p. 39. (Thanks to Mike Clifford for his 23 March 2023 email noting the class ID.) Dubs produced 20 (works numbers 1038-1057 in 1877, Beyer, Peacock 50 (works number 2179-2228 in 1882-1884), Neilson works numbers 30 (2082-2111 in 1876); and Midland's own Derby Works 10.

Samuel Johnson-designed express freight engines that Ahrons (1927) comments were probably the best of the type in the country in their day. Double-headed on fast express goods and wool trains between London and Bradford, they averaged 35 mph (56 kph) over the 200 miles (322 km) each night. And they stood in on fast excursion trains as well. One big reason for their speed and reliability were the generous boiler and grate dimensions.

A later batch of 30 built by Robert Stephenson & Co in 1880-1881 had smaller boilers of 1,223 sq ft pressed to 150 psi; see Locobase 9139.


Class 1377 (Locobase 8452)

Data and information from [], accessed 28 May 2007, which took its information in turn from Radford, J.B. Derby Works and Midland locomotives: the story of the works, its men, and the locomotives they built. 1971.

Locobase 8451 describes the first 40 of this long-running class, which had a few more tubes in their boilers. Starting in 1878, Derby began producing what would be the definitive six-coupled tanks with the boiler dimensions shown in these specs. Orders continued apace for 14 years, the last of this group -- from 20 built by Vulcan Foundry -- being delivered in 1891.


Class 1432 (Locobase 9139)

Data from Mr Edward Woods, Address to the Institution of Civil Engineers 9 November 1886 (London: ICE, 1886), p. 62. Works numbers were 2401-2404 in 1880, 2405-2430 in 1881.

Locobase believes these are the smaller six-coupleds mentioned in Locobase 3011, although their dimensions are slightly different. They certainly followed the blueprint pretty closely and used the same firebox.


Class 245 (Locobase 8450)

Data and information from [], accessed 28 May 2007, which took its information in turn from Radford, J.B. Derby Works and Midland locomotives: the story of the works, its men, and the locomotives they built. 1971. See also "Standard Goods Locomotive, Midland Ry", The Locomotive Magazine, Vol XIII (15 February 1907), p. 25

Locobase 8449 tells of the first 10 locomotives to come out of Derby to this new design. Beginning in July 1903, the locomotives mounted cylinders 1/2" greater in diameter. While seemingly of small consequence, it was apparently the final word as all the rest in this class appeared with this running gear. Another minor change was the extension of the cab roof, which still provided much less coverage than any typical North American locomotive.


Class 2736 (Locobase 8449)

Data and information from [], accessed 28 May 2007, which took its information in turn from Radford, J.B. Derby Works and Midland locomotives: the story of the works, its men, and the locomotives they built. 1971.

Of the new class of goods engines coming out of Derby in 1903, this ten-engine group were the only ones with 18" cylinders. After their delivery in January-March, the design acquired the 18 1/2" cylinders that would be standard for the class from then on; see Locobase 8450.


Class 291 (Locobase 10626)

Data from "Kirtley's Goods Engines, Midland Ry," The Locomotive Magazine, Vol XIII (15 October 1907), pp. 180-181.

Locobase finds this series of designs a bit confusing, but notes that others confess to the same queasy uncertainty. The LM report notes that Matthew Kirtley modified his already prolific six-coupled goods design "... by making the hornplates solid with the frame, the forks being united by tie-bars." The general dimensions remained as they were in the earlier classes, but the boiler was larger.

Derby supplied the lion's share -- 84 -- between 1858 and 1863. Thirty more (numbers 450-479) came from William Fairbairn & Sons of Manchester. West Midland-based Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway bought two of the Derby locomotives in 1859. When the Great Western bought up the WM, the two were renumbered 280-281. Fairbairn also supplied 12 new engines to this design and West Midland's Worcester works added 4. the GWR numbered them 282-293 and 260-263 respectively.

Remarkably, as late as 1907, the LM could report that 41 out of the 84 Derby engines and 21 of the 30 Fairbairn locomotives were still in service, albeit with larger boilers.


Class 480 (Locobase 3008)

Data from Ahrons (1927)

William Kirtley engines with double plate frames built in considerable numbers for freight service in 1869-1873. In addition to the 72 provided during the six-year period by the Derby shops, the first twenty came from Dubs & Co in 1863 with 10 more supplied by Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1869. Robert Stephenson & Company delivered 65, 45 from Kitson, and 20 from Sharp, Stewart. Overall, a total of 252 of this basic design was built between 1863 and 1869..

OS Nock (RWC II, pl 61) notes as contributing factors for this simple design's longevity the "massive" outside frame and "generous bearing surface." They were, he says, "ideal for the heavy work they had to do." 4 endured until 1932; one of this quartet soldiered on until 1946. (Ellis, 1967, says 778 carried on until 1951.


Class 700 (Locobase 3532)

Data from Ahrons (1927).

Matthew Kirtley goods design that was delivered over 4 years by several builders and amounted to 315 locomotives all together. Dubs produced 150 of the design, Vulcan Foundry 80, Neilson 40, John Fowler & Company 10, and Kitson & Company 10. Derby contributed another 25. The biggest difference in the 910s, which were a subclass, was the use of 252 1 1/2" tubes rather than the 168 2-inch pipes in the 700s.

Fifty went to the Italian State Railways in the year it was formed (1905); these were redesignated Gruppo 38. 259 others remained in service in 1907 and many remained to be classed 1F by the LMS upon Grouping in 1923.


Class Class 4F (Locobase 3064)

See also Robert Tufnell, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Railway Locomotives (London: Quarto Publishing Ltd, 1986). See also "Superheater Goods Locomotive Midland Railway", The Locomotive Magazine, Volume 18, No 1 (15 January 1912), p. 5.

Like the earlier Samuel Johnson-designed 0-6-0s, these express freight engines -- designed by Henry Fowler -- could stand in for passenger locomotives when needed and were capable of speeds of up to 60 mph (96 kph). They were austere designs with perfectly straight sides on their Belpaire fireboxes and little adornment. No matter, their ubiquity was such, according to Tufnell, that by the time of the Midland's absorption into the LMS in 1923, the railway operated 1,951 0-6-0s or approximately 2/3 of its entire stud.

Although two of the 4Fs were completed in 1911, series production didn't begin until 1917. Over the next seven years, the Midland built 186 locomotives; the last batches used cylinders of 19 3/4" (502 mm). Its successor, the LMS, produced another 580 from 1924 to 1951; see Locobase 2376.

However, see a very disparaging view of this design on the steamindex.com entry on Fowler locomotives -- [], accessed 12 March 2006. The kinder description is that of Rutherford, whose title on a retrospective article in a 1999 Backtrack read "Masterpiece of mediocrity: the 4F saga. (Railway Reflections 54). Backtrack, 1999, 13, 320-9." Rutherford commented that "perhaps the most remarkable thing about the 4F saga is the almost total lack of attempts to improve the design."

AJ Powell scourged the design from pilot beam to footplate. He acknowledged that the Belpaire firebox was adequate and the boiler capable of producing steam. But the internals were stuffed with pipes leading everywhere, with each requiring access through the back plate with inevitable leakage of steam and water. The driver had no place to sit if he wanted also to see out the cab window.

Frames and axlesboxes had their weaknesses, too, which meant intermediate works repair mileages of between 40,000 and 50,000 miles (64,400-80,500 km). Powell then capped it off by referring to another "endearing habit"...that of snapping off outside crankpins, usually the driving ones." His description of the flaw drips with sardonic offense.

For a counter-argument, however, see Locobase 2376 for a summary of Adrian Tester, A Defence of the Midland/LMS Class 4 0-6-0 published by Crimson Lake.


Class S, U, U2 / 3F (Locobase 10154)

Data from "Six-Coupled Condensing Tank Engine for the Midland Railway," The Locomotive Magazine, Vol V (July 1900), p. 108. Works numbers 1638-1657 inter alia.

This class of Samuel W Johnson-designed mixed-traffic tanks for widespread service. Larger than the numerous Kirtley and earlier Johnson engines, they were a success. The first 20 were equipped with an exhaust-condensing system for traveling through underground sections around Blackfriars during freight transfers to the Southern lines.

Sharing the C1 boiler design with the first 30 Johnson 0-4-4Ts when constructed, the 2441s were modified in 1918 by Henry Fowler to bear G5 1/2 boilers with Belpaire fireboxes. It was in this form that they were taken into the LMS under the Grouping scheme in 1923 and given the power classification of 3F.

These were long-lasting engines - every one of them was taken into the British Railways after railroad nationalization in 1948 and most were not withdrawn until the early-to-mid 1960s.


Class unknown (Locobase 2929)

Data from Ahrons (1927).

Experimental engines built to test both the condensing feedwater heater and patented firebox of Joseph Beattie. Ahrons notes that the idea of capturing approx 15% of the exhaust steam and condensing it seemed to work well enough. He theorizes that it wasn't widely adopted probably because it was complex and because of the nearly simultaneous introduction of injectors.

NB: The direct heating surface (including the firebox heating surface) is an estimate calculated by subtracting the calculated tube heating surface from the reported total evaporative heating surface.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class1102135713771432245
Locobase ID8451 3011 8452 9139 8450
RailroadMidlandMidlandMidlandMidlandMidland
CountryGreat BritainGreat BritainGreat BritainGreat BritainGreat Britain
Whyte0-6-0T0-6-00-6-0T0-6-00-6-0
Number in Class401101853010
Road Numbers1102-11411357-1376, 1582-1631/3020-31291377-1396+1432-1461245-254 et seq
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built401101853010
BuilderseveralseveralDerbyRobert Stephenson & CoDerby
Year18741876187818801903
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15 / 4.5716.50 / 5.0315 / 4.5716.50 / 5.03
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)15 / 4.5716.50 / 5.0315 / 4.5716.50 / 5.03
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase1111
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)15 / 4.5737.81 / 11.5215 / 4.5738.77 / 11.82
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)30,688 / 13,92030,688 / 13,92032,704 / 14,83437,856 / 17,171
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)88,032 / 39,93184,896 / 38,50888,032 / 39,93181,984 / 37,18798,140 / 44,516
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)88,032 / 39,93184,896 / 38,50888,032 / 39,93181,984 / 37,18798,140 / 44,516
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)66,304 / 30,07583,384 / 37,822
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)88,032 / 39,93188,032 / 39,931148,288 / 67,262181,524 / 82,338
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)1080 / 4.093900 / 14.771080 / 4.092640 / 104200 / 15.91
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 4.40 / 4 3.30 / 3 4.40 / 4
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)49 / 24.5047 / 23.5049 / 24.5046 / 2355 / 27.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)54 / 137262.50 / 158854 / 137258.50 / 148663 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)140 / 9.70140 / 9.70140 / 9.70140 / 9.70175 / 12.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17" x 24" / 432x61017.5" x 26" / 445x66017" x 24" / 432x61018" x 26" / 457x66018.5" x 26" / 470x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)15,285 / 6933.1715,161 / 6876.9215,285 / 6933.1717,136 / 7772.7721,010 / 9529.99
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.76 5.60 5.76 4.78 4.67
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)220 - 1.75" / 44213 - 1.75" / 44258 - 1.875" / 48
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)10.88 / 3.32
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)90 / 8.36110 / 10.2291 / 8.46110 / 10.22125 / 11.62
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)17.50 / 1.6317.50 / 1.6317.50 / 1.6317.50 / 1.6321.10 / 1.96
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1120 / 104.091313 / 121.981115 / 103.621261 / 117.191428 / 132.71
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1120 / 104.091313 / 121.981115 / 103.621261 / 117.191428 / 132.71
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume177.64181.40176.84164.67176.54
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation24502450245024503693
Same as above plus superheater percentage24502450245024503693
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area12,60015,40012,74015,40021,875
Power L131383754313832284664
Power MT235.76292.46235.76260.41314.32

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class2736291480700Class 4F
Locobase ID8449 10626 3008 3532 3064
RailroadMidlandMidlandMidlandMidlandMidland
CountryGreat BritainGreat BritainGreat BritainGreat BritainGreat Britain
Whyte0-6-00-6-00-6-00-6-00-6-0
Number in Class10114232315191
Road Numbers2736-2740, 240-244450721
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built10114232315191
BuilderseveralseveralseveralDerby
Year19031858186318691911
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0318.37 / 5.6016.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.03
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0318.37 / 5.6016.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.0316.50 / 5.03
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase11111
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)38.77 / 11.8241.17 / 12.5538.35 / 11.69
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)37,856 / 17,17140,320 / 18,289
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)98,140 / 44,51672,240 / 32,76877,280 / 35,05480,640 / 36,578109,200 / 49,532
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)98,140 / 44,51672,240 / 32,76877,280 / 35,05480,640 / 36,578109,200 / 49,532
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)83,384 / 37,82292,288 / 41,861
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)181,524 / 82,338201,488 / 91,393
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)4200 / 15.913500 / 13.26
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 4.40 / 4 4.50 / 4
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)55 / 27.5040 / 2043 / 21.5045 / 22.5061 / 30.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160062 / 157562 / 157562.50 / 158863 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10130 / 9140 / 9.70140 / 9.70175 / 12.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 26" / 457x66016" x 24" / 406x61016.5" x 24" / 419x61017" x 24" / 432x61020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)19,890 / 9021.9610,950 / 4966.8412,541 / 5688.5113,206 / 5990.1524,556 / 11138.43
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.93 6.60 6.16 6.11 4.45
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)258 - 1.875" / 48180 - 2" / 51166 - 2" / 51168 - 2" / 51146 - 1.75" / 44
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)21 - 5.25" / 133
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)10.88 / 3.3211.2510.75 / 3.28
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)125 / 11.6284 / 7.8182 / 7.62103 / 9.57124 / 11.52
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)21.10 / 1.9615.40 / 1.4316.84 / 1.5721.10 / 1.96
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1428 / 132.711191 / 110.691102 / 102.421096 / 101.861158 / 107.58
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)246 / 22.85
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1428 / 132.711191 / 110.691102 / 102.421096 / 101.861404 / 130.43
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume186.48213.25185.54173.83122.49
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation3693215623583693
Same as above plus superheater percentage3693215623584357
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area21,87510,92011,48014,42025,606
Power L149263875368337267759
Power MT331.97354.77315.20305.60469.94

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassS, U, U2 / 3Funknown
Locobase ID10154 2929
RailroadMidlandMidland
CountryGreat BritainGreat Britain
Whyte0-6-0T0-6-0
Number in Class602
Road Numbers2441-2460+ / 47200
GaugeStdStd
Number Built602
BuilderVulcan FoundryBeyer, Peacock
Year19001858
Valve GearStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0316.25 / 4.95
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0316.25 / 4.95
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase11
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)16.50 / 5.03
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)109,200 / 49,53274,256 / 33,682
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)109,200 / 49,53274,256 / 33,682
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)109,200 / 49,532
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)1200 / 4.55
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)61 / 30.5041 / 20.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)54.50 / 138460 / 1524
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)150 / 10.30130 / 9
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)18" x 26" / 457x66016" x 24" / 406x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)19,708 / 8939.4111,315 / 5132.40
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.54 6.56
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)396 - 1.18" / 30
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m) 5.56 / 1.69
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)110 / 10.22225 / 20.91
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)16 / 1.4917 / 1.58
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1252 / 116.36910 / 84.57
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1252 / 116.36910 / 84.57
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume163.50162.93
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation24002210
Same as above plus superheater percentage24002210
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area16,50029,250
Power L132064737
Power MT194.18421.92

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