LNER 4-4-2 Locomotives in Great_Britain

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class C1 - superheated - 32 (Locobase 6310)

Richard Marsden's LNER Encyclopedia [] (26 Sept 2004) for data and information. See also Robert Tufnell, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Railway Locomotives (London: Quarto Publishing Ltd, 1986). Specs are for the variant operated with 8" (203 mm) piston valves and the last superheater.

See Locobase 1493 for the first round of superheat upgrades to the 251s described in Locobase 1492. This entry shows the result of each of the locomotives had its 24-element Robinson replaced by the 32-element variant shown in the specifications.

When Nigel Gresley took over as chief locomotive engineer at the Great Northern, one of the first tasks he undertook was to get the 251-class Atlantics to realize the full potential of their large boiler and grate dimensions. He accomplished this by retubing the boilers to accept a high percentage of superheat. Piston valves, better able to work with high-temperature steam, also were introduced. In the second round, the result was a considerable increase in superheating surface in the totally revised boiler; all the 2 1/4" tubes were replaced with 2" tubes (and there were 10 fewer of those), but the superheating surface jumped by 33%. As the data show, the percentage of total heating surface devoted to superheating now approached US and German standards.

As a result, "It is generally acknowledged," says Marsden, "that the C1s performed their best work when fitted with the 32-element Robinson superheater."

OS Nock (RWC III, pl 139) reported that "they became remarkable engines, capable of deputizing for a Pacific on the heaviest Anglo-Scottish express duties." Tufnell (1986) credits them with the ability to haul 450 tons. Although Older C1s could still put up fast running times in the 1930s, but age and much sketchier maintenance in the World War II years led to a rapid decline in numbers. The 17 that were still on the rolls as of the 1948 nationalization were withdrawn by November 1950. The last of these reached 75 mph on her last run.

Class C13/C14 - superheated (Locobase 5927)

Data and information from Richard Marsden's [] (22 Feb 2004).

Superheating the two Robinson Atlantic tank classes began with prototypes in each during the GCR era. #1122 of the 9Ls was modified in 1914 and #18 of the 9Ks in 1915.

Once the LNER took over the GCR in 1923, it soon saw the need for superheating all of the others and converted the remaining 50 in the period 1926-1935. The GCR's loading gauge was more generous that of other predecessors of the LNER. When the tall stacks and domes of the original GCR vintage were retained by the LNER during the superheating upgrade, they were designated C13/2 and C14/2. Those with the shorter, LNER-scale fitments were C13/3 and C14/3.

During the LNER period, these tanks were widely distributed. Marsden notes that C13s delegated to lines in Wales for the half-century between introduction and retirement were based at Wrexham, "easily handling the steep Welsh lines in the area". He claims the C13s that replaced Manchester-based LNER F1 2-4-2Ts in 1935 "continued to perform excellent work ...well into British Railways ...ownership, even out-performing modern LMS 2-6-4T types." Three C14s assigned to West Riding "performed well," says Marsden, "despite having only two driving axles, and were well-liked by the railwaymen."

Retirements began in 1952 and the last locomotive of each class left the lines in 1960.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassC1 - superheated - 32C13/C14 - superheated
Locobase ID6310 5927
CountryGreat BritainGreat Britain
Number in Class9452
Road Numbers
Number Built10
Valve GearStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 6.83 / 2.08
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)26.33 / 8.0329.87 / 9.10
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.26
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)44,800 / 20,32141,440 / 18,797
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)90,000 / 40,823
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)149,296 / 67,720
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)149,296 / 67,720
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)2190 / 8.30
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)75 / 37.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)80 / 203267 / 1702
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)175 / 12.10160 / 11
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 24" / 508x61018" x 26" / 457x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)17,850 / 8096.6317,099 / 7755.99
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 5.04
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)134 - 2" / 5190 - 1.75" / 44
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)32 - 5.25" / 13318 - 5.25" / 133
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)16 / 4.88
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)141 / 13.10108 / 10.04
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)31 / 2.8819.59 / 1.82
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1965 / 182.62893 / 82.99
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)568 / 52.79138 / 12.83
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2533 / 235.411031 / 95.82
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume225.17116.62
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation54253134
Same as above plus superheater percentage66193542
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area30,10419,526
Power L120,8086241
Power MT1019.42

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