Alta Italia / Kingdom of Sardinia 2-2-2 Locomotives in Italy


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1 (Locobase 20580)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T1. NB: Locomotive supplied to one of the predecessors to the SFAI, which consolidated them into a network in 1865.

The one was very much of its time with its straight, low-pressure boiler, small dome over the lead carrying axle, thin smokebox from a tall stack (chimney) with flared cap extended, prominent safety-valve stand over the firebox, and no protection at all for the crew.

Locobase found an inconsistencies between the given values for the tube diameters, tube lengths, and for the evaporative heating surface area given as 55.4 sq m. The EHS value shown in Locobase's specs is composed of the firebox heating surface area given in the diagram and the tube heating surface area calculated from the stated tube length, external tube diameter, and count.


Class 151 (Locobase 20587)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T10. NB: Locomotive supplied to one of the predecessors to the SFAI, which consolidated them into a network in 1865.

Although the boiler and haystack firebox betrays the relatively early origins of this locomotive, the large six-wheel tender is almost certainly from a much later date.

Locobase found an inconsistencies between the given values for the tube diameters, tube lengths, and for the evaporative heating surface area given as 55.4 sq m. The EHS value shown in Locobase's specs is composed of the firebox heating surface area given in the diagram and the tube heating surface area calculated from the stated tube length, external tube diameter, and count.


Class 152 (Locobase 20588)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T11.

The Album data contain an inconsistency that Locobase can't resolve with available information. The stated evaporative heating surface area--55.75 sq m--is approximately 17.5% too low when compared to the sum of firebox heating surface area and the calculated tube heating surface area. Locobase's specifications adjust the EHS to reflect the higher value.


Class 156 (Locobase 20590)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T12. NB: Locomotive supplied to one of the predecessors to the SFAI, which consolidated them into a network in 1865.

Cockerill delivered these state-of-the-art machines (as of the late 1840s) in 1848-1849. They had haystack fireboxes over the grate, long, low-pressure boiler, and unprotected footplate. But they were larger than the Cockerill shown in Locobase 20587.

Locobase found an inconsistencies between the given values for the tube diameters, tube lengths, and for the evaporative heating surface area given as 64.0 sq m. The EHS value shown in Locobase's specs is composed of the firebox heating surface area given in the diagram and the tube heating surface area calculated from the stated tube length, external tube diameter, and count.

All six were scrapped in 1873-1875.


Class 162 (Locobase 20591)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T13.

Locobase found an inconsistencies between the given values for the tube diameters, tube lengths, and for the evaporative heating surface area given as 61.5 sq m. The EHS value shown in Locobase's specs is composed of the firebox heating surface area given in the diagram and the tube heating surface area calculated from the stated tube length, external tube diameter, and count.


Class 18 (Locobase 20583)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T4. NB: Locomotive supplied to one of the predecessors to the SFAI, which consolidated them into a network in 1865.

Like the slightly younger, but also British-built Fairbairn single, this Sharpie had a straight, low-pressure boiler, dome over the lead carrying axle (but appearing as if turned on a lathe), thin smokebox from a tall stack (chimney) with flared cap extended, prominent safety-valve stand over the firebox, and no protection at all for the crew.

The Album data contain an inconsistency that Locobase can't resolve with available information. The stated evaporative heating surface area--52.80 sq m--is approximately 20% too low when compared to the sum of firebox heating surface area and the calculated tube heating surface area. Locobase's specifications adjust the EHS to reflect the higher value.

All four locomotives had been scrapped before 1872.


Class 2 (Locobase 20581)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T2. NB: Locomotive supplied to one of the predecessors to the SFAI, which consolidated them into a network in 1865.

A Belgian-built engine, the 2 had a haystack firebox over the grate, long, low-pressure boiler, and unprotected footplate.

Locobase found an inconsistencies between the given values for the tube diameters, tube lengths, and for the evaporative heating surface area given as 60.4 sq m. The EHS value shown in Locobase's specs is composed of the firebox heating surface area given in the diagram and the tube heating surface area calculated from the stated tube length, external tube diameter, and count.

It seems to have already been a dated design with little room for growth. In any case, the class was withdrawn by 1873.


Class 202 (Locobase 20593)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T15.

Possibly the first Italian design to be built for the Upper Italian railways system, this sextet displayed an unusual layout for a "spinner". Most 2-2-2s laid their three axles out ahead of the firebox, placing the driving axle equidistantly from both auxiliary axles. And the crank axle lay inside.

Not here. Ansaldo varied the formula in several ways. The builder placed the rear axle behind both the driving axle and the firebox. All three sets of wheels were held inside the frames. The driving axle was 650 mm (25.6") closer to the lead carrying axle than to the trailing one because the cylinders and connecting rod lay outside the frame. A fat dome with stylish cover sat over the lead axle, just behind the smokebox while the cylinders flanked the smokebox and tall, capped chimney.

The class was rebuilt as 2-4-0s in 1871-1872; see Locobase 20594.


Class 22 (Locobase 20584)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T5. NB: Locomotive supplied to one of the predecessors to the SFAI, which consolidated them into a network in 1865.

Like the slightly younger, but also British-built Fairbairn single, this Sharpie had a straight, low-pressure boiler, dome over the lead carrying axle (but appearing as if turned on a lathe), thin smokebox from a tall stack (chimney) with flared cap extended, prominent safety-valve stand over the firebox, and no protection at all for the crew.

Seven years younger than the Sharpies supplied to an SFAI predecessor, this nonet had smaller drivers and mounted a sandbox. The dome now sat on the middle of the dome, just over the driver's leading edge.

The Album data contain an inconsistency that Locobase can't resolve with available information. The stated evaporative heating surface area--58.2 sq m--is approximately 17% too low when compared to the sum of firebox heating surface area and the calculated tube heating surface area. Locobase's specifications adjust the EHS to reflect the higher value.

All nine locomotives were scrapped in 1874-1875.


Class 34/91/524/FS 103 (Locobase 10730)

Data from E L Ahrons, M I Mech. E, "Early English Express Engines in Italy", The Locomotive Magazine, Vol XV (15 September 1909), p. 174; and Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), . T8.. Works numbers were 724-728, 832-836, 848-852.

Data from E L Ahrons, "Early English Express Engines in Italy," The Locomotive, Vol 15 (15 September 1909), p. 174. Works numbers were 724-728, 832-836, 848-852 .

Ahrons gives data for this batch at two different points in their career. In the main description, we have the smooth boiler as delivered. He points out the disparity in diameters between the leading carrying wheels (54 1/2 inches/1,384 mm) and the trailing axle (43 1/2 inches/1,105 mm), which was apparent in the photograph of the later version from 1885. These engines bore the road numbers given once the Kingdom's railways came under the umbrella of the SFAI (Strade Ferrate Alta Italia).

Locobase found an inconsistencies between the given values for the tube diameters, tube lengths, and for the evaporative heating surface area given as 96.7 sq m. The EHS value shown in Locobase's specs is composed of the firebox heating surface area given in the diagram and the tube heating surface area calculated from the stated tube length, external tube diameter, and count.

Still later in 1885, the SFAI was incorporated into the Rete Mediterraneo. Renumbered 824-836, they received new boilers with Belpaire fireboxes offering 103 sq ft (9.6 sq m) and 181 two-inch (50.8 mm) tubes that added 847 sq ft (78.7 sq m) . The engines weighed 62,160 lb (28,195 kg) each. The dome sat well forward over the carrying axle.

Almost all had been broken up between 1900-1908 with two still operating for the State Railways in that year.

This group of singles was built with unusually sized auxiliary wheels. The leading wheels measured 54 1/2" while the trailing wheels came in at 43 1/2".

Ahrons notes that these locomotives were incorporated into the Strade Ferrate Alta Italia (SFAI) in 1865 when the K of S railways were brought under the national system. They were later rebuilt and renumbered by the Rete Mediterraneo in 1885; see Locobase 10732.


Class 6 (Locobase 20582)

Data from Ferrovie Dell' Alta Italia, Album Delle Locomotive (Torino, 1o Luglio 1876), T3.

The SFAI bought passenger single-wheelers from several different builders, these German locomotives constituting a relatively large class. Compared to the British and Belgian singles shown in Locobases 20580-20581, these engines had more cylinder volume, higher boiler pressure, and slightly smaller drivers.

By 1876, the active class size had dropped to four. Engines 6-9, 12, 15-17 had been scrapped.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class1151152156162
Locobase ID20580 20587 20588 20590 20591
RailroadAlta Italia (SFAI)Alta Italia (SFAI)Alta Italia (SFAI)Alta Italia (SFAI)Alta Italia (SFAI)
CountryItalyItalyItalyItalyItaly
Whyte2-2-22-2-22-2-22-2-22-2-2
Number in Class11466
Road Numbers1151152-155156-161162-167
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built11466
BuilderFairbairnCockerillSharp, StewartCockerillRobert Stephenson & Co
Year18571848185018481852
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)13.12 / 413.27 / 4.0513.45 / 4.1010.55 / 3.2111.87 / 3.62
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)29.91 / 9.1225.97 / 7.9229.40 / 8.9631.76 / 9.6828.73 / 8.76
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)19,621 / 890022,597 / 10,25020,073 / 910519,621 / 890021,782 / 9880
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)19,621 / 890022,597 / 10,25020,073 / 910518,607 / 844021,782 / 9880
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)46,738 / 21,20048,943 / 22,20041,502 / 18,82545,239 / 20,52050,684 / 22,990
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)26,786 / 12,15033,841 / 15,35034,172 / 15,50032,849 / 14,90033,510 / 15,200
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)73,524 / 33,35082,784 / 37,55075,674 / 34,32578,088 / 35,42084,194 / 38,190
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)792 / 31320 / 51320 / 51320 / 51320 / 5
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 0.90 / 12 / 2 1.70 / 2 2.20 / 2 2.20 / 2
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)33 / 16.5038 / 1933 / 16.5031 / 15.5036 / 18
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)65.90 / 167567.30 / 171067.10 / 170561.80 / 157067.30 / 1710
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)87 / 687 / 687 / 687 / 687 / 6
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)13.19" x 22.01" / 335x55913.98" x 22.01" / 355x55913.98" x 22.01" / 355x55913.03" x 22.01" / 331x55913.98" x 22.01" / 355x559
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)4297 / 1949.094727 / 2144.134741 / 2150.484472 / 2028.474727 / 2144.13
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.57 4.78 4.23 4.16 4.61
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)212 - 1.575" / 40113 - 2.047" / 52120 - 2.047" / 52131 - 1.969" / 50123 - 2.165" / 55
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)10.10 / 3.0811.35 / 3.4610.33 / 3.1513.22 / 4.0311.38 / 3.47
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)72.12 / 6.7059.20 / 5.5063.51 / 5.9057.05 / 5.3058.13 / 5.40
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)12.49 / 1.1611.30 / 1.0510.23 / 0.9511.19 / 1.0411.73 / 1.09
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)955 / 88.70747 / 69.40724 / 67.30950 / 88.25851 / 79.05
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)955 / 88.70747 / 69.40724 / 67.30950 / 88.25851 / 79.05
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume274.36191.03185.15279.67217.63
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation10879838909741021
Same as above plus superheater percentage10879838909741021
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area62745150552549635057
Power L136122603259232592849
Power MT405.85253.96284.68386.14288.36

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class1822022234/91/524/FS 103
Locobase ID20583 20581 20593 20584 10730
RailroadAlta Italia (SFAI)Alta Italia (SFAI)Alta Italia (SFAI)Alta Italia (SFAI)Kingdom of Sardinia (SFAI)/(RM)/FS
CountryItalyItalyItalyItalyItaly
Whyte2-2-22-2-22-2-22-2-22-2-2
Number in Class446915
Road Numbers18-212-5202-207/595-60022-30229-233, 34-38, 80-89/91-105/524-538
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built446915
BuilderSharp, StewartCockerillAnsaldoSharp, StewartSharp, Stewart
Year18501854185718571853
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)12.66 / 3.8613.85 / 4.2214.11 / 4.3013.39 / 4.0814.73 / 4.49
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)37.40 / 11.4030.83 / 9.4029.96 / 9.1330.30 / 9.2333.14 / 10.10
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)23,369 / 10,60019,621 / 890026,015 / 11,80022,267 / 10,10028,001 / 12,701
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)23,369 / 10,60021,826 / 990026,015 / 11,80022,267 / 10,10027,558 / 12,500
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)53,242 / 24,15046,738 / 21,20060,186 / 27,30054,013 / 24,50060,186 / 27,300
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)33,290 / 15,10035,605 / 16,15038,801 / 17,60032,849 / 14,90046,517 / 21,100
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)86,532 / 39,25082,343 / 37,35098,987 / 44,90086,862 / 39,400106,703 / 48,400
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)1320 / 5792 / 31452 / 5.501320 / 51848 / 7
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 2.20 / 2 0.90 / 1 2.80 / 3 2.20 / 2 3.30 / 3
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)39 / 19.5036 / 1843 / 21.5037 / 18.5046 / 23
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)66.90 / 170065.90 / 167567.10 / 170561 / 155078 / 1981
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)87 / 687 / 6101.50 / 787 / 6101.50 / 7
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)15" x 22.01" / 381x55913.19" x 22.01" / 335x55915" x 22.05" / 381x56014.96" x 20.47" / 380x52015.98" x 20" / 406x508
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)5474 / 2482.974297 / 1949.096379 / 2893.475554 / 2519.265649 / 2562.35
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.27 5.08 4.08 4.01 4.88
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)120 - 1.969" / 50125 - 1.969" / 50131 - 1.969" / 50129 - 2.008" / 51194 - 2.008" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)10.24 / 3.1211.32 / 3.4511.48 / 3.5010.30 / 3.1410.56 / 3.22
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)53.82 / 563.51 / 5.9059.20 / 5.5058.13 / 5.4093.65 / 8.70
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)10.44 / 0.9712.59 / 1.1711.84 / 1.1011.09 / 1.0314.64 / 1.36
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)687 / 63.80793 / 73.65880 / 81.75757 / 70.301171 / 108.79
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)687 / 63.80793 / 73.65880 / 81.75757 / 70.301171 / 108.79
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume152.61227.82195.13181.78252.23
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation908109512029651486
Same as above plus superheater percentage908109512029651486
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area46825525600950579505
Power L120603049296022254659
Power MT194.34307.98250.84220.29372.72

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class6
Locobase ID20582
RailroadAlta Italia (SFAI)
CountryItaly
Whyte2-2-2
Number in Class12
Road Numbers6-17
GaugeStd
Number Built12
BuilderMaffei
Year1852
Valve GearStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)12.99 / 3.96
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)26.69 / 8.13
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)22,046 / 10,000
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)22,046 / 10,000
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)46,517 / 21,100
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)35,605 / 16,150
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)82,122 / 37,250
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)1452 / 5.50
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 2.20 / 2
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)37 / 18.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62.20 / 1580
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)101.50 / 7
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)14.37" x 24.02" / 365x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)6880 / 3120.72
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.20
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)124 - 1.969" / 50
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)10.76 / 3.28
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)73.84 / 6.86
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)10.55 / 0.98
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)761 / 70.71
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)761 / 70.71
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume168.78
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation1071
Same as above plus superheater percentage1071
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area7495
Power L12638
Power MT263.80

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