Cape Government 4-4-0 Locomotives in South_Africa


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Wynberg Tender - last 8 (Locobase 10361)

Data from "Recent Locomotives for India and South Africa," The Locomotive Magazine, Vol IX (5 September 1903)., p.146. Sharp, Stewart Works numbers were 4969-4976.

The progression from the 1889 locomotives shown in Locobase 16061 to this last class of Wynberg Tenders (see Locobases 16062-16063 for the other two batches) is quite impressive. Cylinder volume increased by 50% and boiler pressure by 20%, more than compensating for the 22% increase in driver diameter in generating starting tractive effort. Direct heating surface area claimed an ever-larger percentage of total heating surface. Axle loading had grown by over five tons.

The 1903s claimed another milestone-- they were the last Eight-wheelers built for either the CGR or the SAR. All later designs would roll on at least three driven axles.


Class 3rd - Wynberg Tender 1898 (Locobase 16062)

Data from Wikipedia, [], last accessed 4 June 2015. Works numbers were 5282-5287 in 1898.

This sextet of Eight-wheelers designed by new locomotive superintendent H M Beattie represented the first substantial increase in boiler size since the introduction of the first 3rd class engines in 1883 (Locobase 16059). Along with the bigger boiler came increases in firebox and grate areas, 6" taller drivers, and power dimensions that included larger cylinders and more boiler pressure than the the 1889 design (Locobase 16061).

The class served the ever-growing and lengthening commuter traffic stretching from Salt River to Simon's Town.


Class 3rd - Wynberg Tender 1901 (Locobase 16063)

Data from Wikipedia,[], last accessed 4 June 2015. Works numbers were 4710-4715 in 1901.

H M Beattie went to a different builder in 1901 to buy six more Eight-wheeled commuter engines for the CGR to join the 1898 Wynberg Tenders shown in Locobase 16062. Now they rolled on 5-foot drivers, had larger grates and fireboxes, a longer engine wheelbase, and even higher axle loadings.

Even so, within a decade the new South African Railways management considered the class obsolete. Yet the first withdrawals of two engines only happened in 1918 and the others continued in service until 1931.


Class CGR 3rd Class - 1889 (Locobase 16061)

Data from Wikipedia, [], last accessed 4 June 2015. Works numbers were 2486-2497 in 1888, 2536-2547 in 1889.

This Michael Stephen design was the first "stock locomotives" to be designed in the Cape Colony. The resulting Eight-wheeler had a slightly larger grate and firebox than the 1882 Neilsons (Locobase 16059), but a very similar sized boiler rolling on a slightly longer wheelbase. Greater tractive effort came from a 2" longer stroke and an increase in 20 psi increase in boiler pressure.

They are described in Wikipedia as "at the time [of their introduction], modern and up to date with latest practices and were possibly the most efficient engines in the country." Locobase notices that while adhesion weight increased by three tons, the class's factor of adhesion dropped appreciably. Presumably engine driver technique overcame any resulting slipping tendency.


Class Cape Eastern low-calorie (Locobase 16060)

Data from Wikipedia[], last accessed 4 June 2015. Works numbers were 3080-3081 in 1883.

Hoping to exploit the readily available reserves of low-quality coal in the Cape Colony, J D Tilney, the Cape Eastern System's Locomotive Superintendent carried out a series of experiments using the tank engines already in service. He then prepared a set of specifications for Eight- and Ten-wheeler locomotives with 60% larger grates. The two 4-4-0s arrived in 1883 trailing special six-wheel tenders under which the leading axle was fixed while the center and trailing axles rode in a bogie.

Constrained by its position within the frame and the loading gauge, the firebox could only get longer, meaning that it was hard to fire and its heating surface area could grow by only 33%. Still, they steamed well enough until good-quality coal became available to burn in shorter fireboxes. They were withdrawn from service between 1900 and 1910.


Class Four-coupled Joys (Locobase 16059)

Data from Wikipedia, [], last accessed 4 June 2015. Works numbers were 2917-2934 in 1882.

This set of Eight-wheelers was nicknamed for their Joy valve gear, which was a weak point in their design. The Western System reconfigured three of the eighteen with Stephenson gear and saw improvement in their performance. Yet the other fifteen were not modified.

Five of the engines were sold in 1896 to the Dutch-owned Oranje-Vrijstaat Gouwerment-Spoorwegen.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Wynberg Tender - last 83rd - Wynberg Tender 18983rd - Wynberg Tender 1901CGR 3rd Class - 1889Cape Eastern low-calorie
Locobase ID10361 16062 16063 16061 16060
RailroadCape GovernmentCape GovernmentCape GovernmentCape GovernmentCape Government
CountrySouth AfricaSouth AfricaSouth AfricaSouth AfricaSouth Africa
Whyte4-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-04-4-0
Number in Class866242
Road Numbers1, 21, 29-30, 45, 48-49, 5612-176-1193-116E53-E54/645-646
Gauge3'6"3'6"3'6"3'6"3'6"
Number Built866242
BuilderNorth BritishNeilson & CoSharp, StewartDubs & CoNeilson & Co
Year19031898190118881883
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonJoy
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 7.50 / 2.297 / 2.137 / 2.137 / 2.13 6.50 / 1.98
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)20.01 / 6.1018.73 / 5.7119.51 / 5.9518.37 / 5.6017.75 / 5.41
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.38 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)37.79 / 11.5240.65 / 12.3937.79 / 11.5234.96 / 10.66
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)33,376 / 15,13929,008 / 13,15831,600 / 14,33423,744 / 10,77020,552 / 9322
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)66,416 / 30,12657,792 / 26,21462,720 / 28,44947,488 / 21,54041,104 / 18,644
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)94,304 / 42,77685,344 / 38,71189,600 / 40,64269,104 / 31,34566,752 / 30,278
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)70,224 / 31,85362,720 / 28,44967,200 / 30,48160,480 / 27,43345,052 / 20,435
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)164,528 / 74,629148,064 / 67,160156,800 / 71,123129,584 / 58,778111,804 / 50,713
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)2964 / 11.232600 / 9.852820 / 10.682340 / 7.582000 / 7.58
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 4.40 / 4 5.50 / 5 3.30 / 3 3.03 / 3
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)55 / 27.5048 / 2452 / 2640 / 2034 / 17
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)60 / 152454 / 137260 / 152449 / 124548.75 / 1238
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40160 / 11165 / 11.40150 / 10.30130 / 9
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)17.5" x 24" / 445x61016" x 24" / 406x61017" x 24" / 432x61015" x 22" / 381x55915" x 20" / 381x508
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)18,743 / 8501.6915,474 / 7018.9016,213 / 7354.1012,880 / 5842.2810,200 / 4626.65
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.54 3.73 3.87 3.69 4.03
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)185 - 1.875" / 48143 - 1.75" / 44
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)10.42 / 3.18
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)109 / 10.1385.53 / 7.9592 / 8.5574.50 / 6.9283.23 / 7.73
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)18 / 1.6715.70 / 1.4616.80 / 1.5613 / 1.2118.25 / 1.70
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1019 / 94.70965 / 89.65942 / 87.51764 / 70.98763 / 70.88
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1019 / 94.70965 / 89.65942 / 87.51764 / 70.98763 / 70.88
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume152.51172.78149.41169.79186.52
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation32402512277219502373
Same as above plus superheater percentage32402512277219502373
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area19,62013,68515,18011,17510,820
Power L142143591366930943045
Power MT279.76273.98257.93287.28326.64

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassFour-coupled Joys
Locobase ID16059
RailroadCape Government
CountrySouth Africa
Whyte4-4-0
Number in Class18
Road NumbersW77-W88, E15-E16, M80-M83
Gauge3'6"
Number Built18
BuilderNeilson & Co
Year1882
Valve GearJoy
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 6.50 / 1.98
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)17.75 / 5.41
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.37
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)34.96 / 10.66
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)20,552 / 9322
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)41,104 / 18,644
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)66,752 / 30,278
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)43,998 / 19,957
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)110,750 / 50,235
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)2000 / 7.58
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT) 3.03 / 3
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)34 / 17
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)48 / 1219
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)130 / 9
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)15" x 20" / 381x508
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)10,359 / 4698.77
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.97
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)145 - 1.75" / 44
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)10.50 / 3.20
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)62.50 / 5.81
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)11.25 / 1.05
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)753 / 69.96
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)753 / 69.96
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume184.08
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation1463
Same as above plus superheater percentage1463
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area8125
Power L12709
Power MT290.60

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