Ann Arbor 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" Locomotives in the USA

In 1919, the Ann Arbor Railroad received four USRA allocated "Santa Fe" Light locomotives. They were built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works and were designated as Class L and assigned road numbers 190-193. These locomotives had 57" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 69,575 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 352,000 pounds.

The Ann Arbor came under the control of the Wabash Railroad in 1926. The Ann Arbor identity was preserved, but the locomotive classes and numbers were changed to conform to those of the Wabash. Class L locomotives numbers 190-193 were reclassified as Class L-2 with road numbers 2550-2553 assigned.

Although these "Santa Fe" type locomotives were well proportioned for their cylinder volume their low drivers made them best suited for drag freight service which dwindled during the late 1920s and 1930's. When WWII began, all of the United States railroads needed more motive power. The Ann Arbor Railroad sold all four of the Class L (Wabash Class L-2) 2-10-2s to the Kansas City Southern in 1942. The KCS assigned them their road numbers 220 through 223.

There are no surviving AA 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives.

The Kansas City Southern Railway needed additional motive power to help out moving wartime traffic and bought ten second-hand "Santa Fe" 2-10-2 type locomotives in 1942. It bought six from the Wabash Railroad and four from the Ann Arbor Railroad. The six from the Wabash were former numbers 2504, 2506, 2508, 2511, 2521 and 2525. The four from the Ann Arbor were former numbers 190, 191, 192 and 193.

The ex Wabash locomotives were built in 1917 by the American Locomotive Company and the ex Ann Arbor locomotives were built in 1919 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works.


ClassQty.Road NumbersWabash NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
L 4190-1932550-25531919Baldwin1. USRA allocated "Santa Fe-Light" locomotives. After the Wabash took control of the AA these locomotives became Wabash Class L-2 with numbers 2550-2553. Numbers 2550-2553 were sold to the KCS in 1942 and became KCS road numbers 220-223.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class L (USRA)/L2 (Locobase 8393)

Data from AA-M&LS 1 - 1928 locomotive diagram book dated supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 58, pp. 134+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 12 November 2020 email noting a driver diameter increase, axle loading, and revisions by the Wabash.) Works numbers were 52248 in August 1919 and 52279-52281 in September.

Ann Arbor's Santa Fes were four examples of the light Santa Fe design (Locobase 89) delivered to several railroads through the United States Railroad Administration. According to the Baldwin specs for that order showed that the direct heating surface area included 110 sq ft (10.22 sq m) in the combustion chamber and 34 sq ft (3.16 sq m) in the arch tubes. Although generously proportioned for their cylinder volume, the light Santa Fe's low drivers doomed them to drag-freight service that dwindled during the 1920s and 1930s. Chris Hohl reported a driver diameter increase to 58"; such an increase usually reflected the adoption of thicker tires.

After the AA came under the Wabash's control, this quartet was redesignated L2 and renumbered., When World War II began for the United States and railroads across the country were scrambling for any motive power they could get, the AA sold this quartet to the Kansas City Southern in September 1942.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Middle Run Media

ClassL (USRA)/L2
Locobase ID8393
RailroadAnn Arbor (AA)
Number in Class4
Road Numbers190-193/2550-2553
Number Built4
Valve GearSouthern
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)21 / 6.40
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)40.33 / 12.29
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.52
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)75.96 / 23.15
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)55,800 / 25,310
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)276,000 / 125,192
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)352,000 / 159,665
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)188,300 / 85,412
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)540,300 / 245,077
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)10,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)16 / 15
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)92 / 46
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)57 / 1448
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)27" x 32" / 686x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)69,575 / 31558.73
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.97
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)247 - 2" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)45 - 5.5" / 140
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)20.50 / 6.25
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)379 / 35.21
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)76.30 / 7.09
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4699 / 436.55
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1078 / 100.15
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5777 / 536.70
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume221.55
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation15,260
Same as above plus superheater percentage18,159
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area90,202
Power L114,598
Power MT583.03

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Wes Barris