Pennsylvania 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" Locomotives in the USA

The Pennsylvania Railroad took delivery of sixty "Santa Fe" type locomotives during 1918 and 1919. These locomotives had 62" diameter drivers, 30" x 32" cylinders, a 215 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 84,890 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 435,000 pounds. The American Locomotive Company built sixteen of them in 1918 and nineteen in 1919. The Baldwin Locomotive Works built twenty-five of them in 1919. These 2-10-2s were designed for heavy freight service on the Lines West. They had flangeless center drivers and lateral-motion axle boxes on the front and rear driver sets to allow them to negotiate 22 degree curves. They also had Belpaire fireboxes.

Also in 1919 the USRA allocated 130 "Santa Fe-Heavy" locomotives to the PRR. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 30 x 32 cylinders, a 190 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 73,829 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed 384,225 pounds. ALCO built one hundred of these 2-10-2s and Baldwin built the other thirty.

In the mid 1920s the PRR rebuilt its USRA allocated "Santa Fe" locomotives to include a Belpaire firebox. The PRR was one of the few American railroads to use this type of firebox. Most steam locomotive had a boiler that was continuously round from the front of the locomotive through and including the firebox. This meant that the staybolts used to hold the firebox in place had to be of various lengths to connect the rectangular shaped firebox to the round boiler jacket, which complicated maintenance. Locomotives with a Belpaire firebox had boiler, which was square shaped over the firebox. This design permitted the use of staybolts of the same length and the interior of the firebox allowed for more heating surface.

There are no surviving PRR 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type locomotives.


Roster

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
N1607008 . 98661918-1919ALCO, BaldwinSee chart below for Class N1 road numbers and disposition.
N21307036 . 200431919ALCO, BaldwinUSRA allocated .Santa Fe-Heavy. locomotives. See chart below for Class N2 road numbers and disposition.

Class N1 and Class N2 Road Numbers
ClassQty. Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
N11670087025708671177128722072287242724572471918ALCO 1
715072277232724372467248
97249725972617331734073427344734574181919 ALCO 1
20 74817613 7637 7646 7697922292289234935393651919 Baldwin 2
7483762876387650921792269229933593569404
5970497059706970897091919ALCO 2
197101919Baldwin 3
2972197221919ALCO 3
197241919Baldwin 4
39730975297531919ALCO 5
39860986198661919Baldwin 6
N22703670821919Baldwin 3
171041919ALCO 7
771237126713971817190721272631919Baldwin 8
172651919ALCO 7
67268726972767377728172821919Baldwin 5
37283728472851919ALCO 9
37286732673431919Baldwin 8
18763579097910791779217927 79377944796180081919ALCO 8
79167918792579307939796079628039
180441919Baldwin 10
1280708095809881058110814081448147814981621919ALCO 9
81598164
2818481961919Baldwin 11
182061919ALCO 12
182081919Baldwin 3
2821582231919ALCO 2
182271919Baldwin 3
582318241825382558258 1919ALCO 13
182631919Baldwin 7
38266826882991919ALCO 14
483168337836083711919Baldwin 8
183761919ALCO 10
1 83791919Baldwin 10
14 83898393840884258794889588968901890389051919ALCO 9
8897890289048906
1 89091919Baldwin 12
39 8912891689208929973898459854985820003200401919ALCO 8
891489178921973197399849985598592000420041
8915891889229733983898519856200012000520042
891989289737983998539857200022003920043

Notes for the Class N1 and Class N2 Road Numbers chart.

  1. Scrapped between 1947 and 1950.
  2. Scrapped between 1948 and 1950.
  3. Scrapped in 1949.
  4. Scrapped in 1947.
  5. Scrapped between 1949 and 1950.
  6. Scrapped between 1948 and 1950.
  7. Scrapped in 1953.
  8. Scrapped between 1949 and 1953.
  9. Scrapped between 1948 and 1953
  10. Scrapped in 1952
  11. #8184 scrapped in 1953. #8196 scrapped in 1948.
  12. Scrapped in 1950
  13. Scrapped between 1949 and 1952.
  14. Scrapped between 1950 and 1953.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class N1s (Locobase 82)

Data from Rob Schoenberg diagram collection then at [], visited December 2002. See also DeGolyer, Volume 59, pp. 326; and "Heavy Type Engines Built for Pennsylvania Lines", Railway Journal, Volume 25, No 3. (March 1918), pp. 17-18; "Santa Fe Locomotive, Pennsylvania Lines West", Railway Review, Volume 64; 313-314;and Pennsylvania Railroad, "Classification and Description of Locomotives and Tenders -- No. 109-H", issued November 16, 1925, p. 18 supplied in August 2013 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection.

(Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .Also, thanks to Chris for his 1 October 2019 email noting the original boiler pressure.)

Alco-Brooks works numbers were 58556-58557 in June 1918, 58558-58560 in July, 58561 in August, 58562-58565 in September, 58566-58567 in November, 58568-58571 in December 1918, 58572-58574 in February 1919; 58575-58590 in March. Baldwin works numbers were 51826 in May 1919; 51878-51879, 51916-51917, 51986 in June; 52119-52120 in July; 52152-52153, 52179-52183, 52219, 52247, 52278 in August; 52314-52315, 52331-52353 in September; 52493, 52576 in November.

Baldwin (25) and Alco-Brooks (35) both built engines in this class; Locobase used the specifications presented in the PRR's 109-H tables.

William D Edson (Keystone Steam & Electric, 1974) says were built to serve the Lines West requirement for heavy freight movement out of the Lake ports. Ruling grade was no greater than 0.3%, which allowed a tonnage rating of 6,000 in 85 loaded ore cars.

One stringent requirement was the need to be able to negotiate 22-deg curves, accomplished by using flangeless center drivers and lateral-motion axle boxes on the front and rear driver set. Brooks engines had Woodard boxes. Baldwin's specs didn't say which design they used. RR's report noted the four-point suspension system that equalized the front driving axle with the leading truck, the rear driving axle with the trailing truck, and the driving axles two through four among themselves.

Of course, if it's Pennsy, it must have a Belpaire boiler. (See Locobase 32 for a comment on the unique design of Pennsy's Belpaire firebox.). Pennsy set the boiler at 205 psi (14.1 bar) when the class entered service, but raised the setting before long to the 215 psi shown in the specs.

Firebox heating surface area included 126 sq ft (11.70 sq m) in the combustion chamber and 43 sq ft (3.99 sq m). Brooks' method for measuring superheater area apparently differed from Baldwin and the Pennsy, showing in the RJ report's table as 1,618 sq ft (150.32 sq m). A Crawford underfeed stoker moved coal from the tender to the firebox in the Alcos; Baldwin's spec replaced the Crawford with a Duplex stoker..

Fourteen-inch (356 mm) piston valves admitted steam to the cylinders. RJ's report noted the long 8 1/2" (216 mm) valve travel and described Brooks's use of long radius rods and a long link combined with a large throw of the eccentric crank to benefit from the length "without excessive angularity".

RJ's report in 1919 admitted that using larger-diameter tubes decreased total heating surface area, "experiments have demonstrated that as tubes are lengthened beyond a certain point the evaporation does not increase proportionately." The ratio of tube length to diameter was a nearly perfect 101.

Like most Pennsy steam, these locomotives operated into the late 1940s.


Class N2s (USRA) (Locobase 1425)

Data from Rob Schoenberg's [] (visited December 2002), which reproduces the 1928 diagrams and thus the dimensions after reconstruction with the Belpaire firebox.

Firebox had combustion chamber. The more widely emulated of the two USRA "Santa Fe" designs. Delivered originally with radial-stay fireboxes, these engines received the typical Pennsy Belpaire-type firebox in 1923. See Locobase 32 for a comment on the unique design of Pennsy's Belpaire firebox.

Eugene Huddleston (Trains, March 1991), writing about this design, comments that the Pennsy found that when assigned trains in accordance with their tractive power, these engines "handled their tonnage in a satisfactory manner."

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassN1sN2s (USRA)
Locobase ID82 1425
RailroadPennsylvania (PRR)Pennsylvania (PRR)
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte2-10-22-10-2
Number in Class60130
Road Numbers7008+7036+
GaugeStdStd
Number Built60130
BuilderSeveralSeveral
Year19181919
Valve GearWalschaertSouthern
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)22.17 / 6.7622.33 / 6.81
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)41.96 / 12.7942.17 / 12.85
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.53 0.53
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)82.77 / 25.2382.87 / 25.26
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)75,600 / 34,29263,200 / 28,667
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)351,000 / 159,211297,000 / 134,717
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)435,000 / 197,313380,700 / 172,683
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)206,100 / 93,485211,200 / 95,799
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)641,100 / 290,798591,900 / 268,482
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)9600 / 36.3612,000 / 45.45
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)19.70 / 1816.90 / 15
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)117 / 58.5099 / 49.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)62 / 157563 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)215 / 14.80190 / 13.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)30" x 32" / 762x81330" x 32" / 762x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)84,890 / 38505.5073,829 / 33488.31
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.13 4.02
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)196 - 2.5" / 64257 - 2.25" / 57
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)54 - 5.5" / 14050 - 5.5" / 140
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)20.83 / 6.3520.36 / 6.21
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)422 / 39.20420 / 39.03
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)79.93 / 7.4383.20 / 7.73
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4727 / 439.154980 / 462.83
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1364 / 126.721222 / 113.57
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)6091 / 565.876202 / 576.40
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume180.56190.22
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation17,18515,808
Same as above plus superheater percentage20,96618,970
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area110,69195,760
Power L116,22013,776
Power MT509.39511.29

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