Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company 2-2-2 "Single" Locomotives in the USA

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Black Diamond (Locobase 13926)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 15, p. 122. See also "Museum polishes and shines a rare 'Black Diamond'", Trains, Volume 72, No. 4 (April 2012), p. 84 and GC Carter, "Black Diamond Inspection Locomotive", St Louis Museum of Transportation, last accessed 5 March 2012. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 18 January 2015 email update on the Black Diamond's restoration and for his 3 December 1918 email providing comments by Ron Goldfeder on the Black Diamond.) Works number was 10174 in August 1889.

The Trains report says that the Black Diamond was completed for use by Roland C Luther , General Superintendent of the P&RC&ICo.. From the outside, the inspection car/locomotive resembled an elongated "steam dummy" of the type then being sold to street-car lines in many cities. Note the "over-square" cylinders and relatively large grate with water tubes and pull-out bars, which was to burn "egg coal". In addition to the 33 2" tubes, the boiler had four 1 3/4" tubes as it was "re-designed by straightening up the side sheets of approximately the Belpaire design with modifications of crown to suit."

The body had a clerestory roof and doors at the rear for the engine crew and in the front for the passengers.The cabin had four revolving chairs and one central box seat. The sides of the body were upholstered with tufted leather and the windows fitted with French plate glass. Fluted rubber matting covered both the steps and platform, which had a center bump to allow the doors to swing out more easily. So cramped was the cab, according to several sources, that only a small boy could serve as fireman.

A "spare-no-expense" philosophy dictated that the body "was to sheathed with #14 steel plate, to be put on in as large plates as possible with no imperfections, both as to material or workmanship." The specs included walnut woodwork, "French plate glass" for the windows at front and rear and in the partition. All hardware was nickel-plated, including Baldwin's builders plate The glass inside for the side windows, which opened and were shaded by roller curtains, was to be of "good quality". So too was the carpeting to be of "good quality" and "in keeping with finish of engine". Even the bands on the boiler, which were planished (i.e., "Russian iron") in the cab, were brass in the passenger section. (Ron Goldfeder noted that the boiler's planished shell was not visible in the inspection section as it was covered with a floor and carpet. See Locobase 11179 for a description of this 19th century technique for protecting a boiler.)

Painted in raw umber and gold and rolling on red wheels behind a red pilot, the little engine appears to have had an active career of less than 20 years, although details are indefinite. Carter's careful reconstruction leaves several acknowledged gaps, but tells the story of how the MOT gained final ownership quite well.

Goldfeder pointed that the Black Diamond, owned by the P&RI&C, only became Reading property "when the railroad wanted to loan it to the MOT, so they could ship it free under ICC rules. They [Reading] were quite surprised to find it wasn't theirs, and they had it transferred over to them.

After sitting outside, but under a canopy for several years, the Black Diamond was taken into the shop on 15 December 2011 for cosmetic restoration and display in a new visitor's center. Chris Hohl, a volunteer at the Transportation Museum, reported that the restoration was completed in June 2012 and was put on display at the Roberts Building.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassBlack Diamond
Locobase ID13926
RailroadPhiladelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company
Number in Class1
Road Numbers
Number Built1
BuilderBurnham, Parry, Williams & Co
Valve GearStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m) 9.62 / 2.93
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m) 9.62 / 2.93
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)10,080 / 4572
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)9070 / 4114
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)26,350 / 11,952
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)26,350
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)280 / 1.06
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)15 / 7.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)42 / 1067
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)160 / 11
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)8.25" x 8.5" / 210x216
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)1873 / 849.58
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.84
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)33 - 2" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m) 6.69 / 2.04
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)
Grate Area (sq ft / m2) 9.10 / 0.85
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation1456
Same as above plus superheater percentage1456
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area
Power L1
Power MT

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