Lehigh & New England 2-8-0 "Consolidation" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class E-12 (Locobase 13696)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 38, p. 219 and Vol 49, p. 279. Works numbers were 37100-37101 in October 1911 and 40697 in December 1913.

These big saturated-steam camelback Consolidations had very large boilers stuffed with small tubes. The specs called for the design to pull trains of 2500 "net tons" up a 1/2% grade with frictional resistance based on 6 lb/net ton at 10 mph (16 km/h), "the fuel to be a mixture of 1/2 anthracite and 1/2 bituminous."

They were later superheated; see Locobase 2788.


Class E-13 (Locobase 6701)

Data from L&NE 8 - 1940 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Vol 55, pp. 9+. Works numbers wer 40967 in December 1913 and 43005 in March 1916.

This was the last of the "Mother Hubbard" (or camelback) Consolidations supplied by Baldwin to the L & NE. Little had changed in the basic design -- the grate area remained huge, the cab sat over the second driving axle and between the two domes. However, this engine was delivered with superheaters and used 14" piston valves actuated by outside radial valve gear to supply their capacious cylinders.

When the L&NE ordered the 154 as a superheated locomotive, the specs included a guarantee that the engine would haul trains of 2,500 net tons up a 1/2% grade, with frictional resistance based on 6 pounds per ton at a speed of 10 mph (16 km/h). Fuel was a mixture of anthracite and bituminous.

The lone 1913 camelback (Locobase 13696) later joined the 154 in the E-13 class when it was rebuilt to the same dimensions.

Both engines were scrapped in April 1950.


Class E-5 (Locobase 11488)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 26, p. 285. Works numbers were 23886, 23919, 23932 in March 1904.

E-5s were the first L&NE Consolidations to use 20" x 26" cylinders Fourteen more (E-7 to E-9) would offer the same cylinder volume to steam pressed to 200 psi (13.8 bar.)

As the railroad's demands grew, the E-5s didn't keep pace and the three were scrapped in 1929 with 15 and 17 going in June and 16 in July.


Class E-6 (Locobase 12818)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 38, p. 225, Vol 43, p. 59, and Vol 49, p. 275.. Works numbers were 37067-37068 in October 1911, 39084-39088 in January 1913, and 40961-40966 in December.

Given the late date of their production, Locobase supposes that these were branch-line freighters. They're relatively small and light with a low axle loading.

Most operated into the 1930s, the last built (46) being the first to retire in 1929. Four remained in service when the US entered World War II in December 1941. 45 was scrapped in 1942, 37 and 43 in 1943, and 39 in 1944.


Class E-7 (Locobase 12816)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 28, p. 79. Works numbers were 26354-26356 in August 1905.

It's apparent that the L & NE found their E-5 class Consolidations (Locobase 11488) a bit scant in terms of grate area. So they asked Baldwin to raise the firebox and widen the grate while retaining the rest of the boiler's dimensions.

All three locomotives put in more than 20 years on the L & NE before being sold to other railroads for equally lengthy second careers. 19-20 went to locomotive rebuilder/reseller Georgia Car & Locomotive in May and August 1928, respectively. Both were sold the next year to New Jersey's Rahway Valley where they toiled as 13 and 14 until 1951 (14) and 1955 (13). 18 was sold directly in October 1929 to the Bellefonte Central as #15. When the BC wanted to sell the engine in 1941, it found a buyer in the Coudersport & Port Allegany, which ran the 15 until 1953.


Class E-8 (Locobase 12817)

Data from L&NE 8 - 1940 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 29, p. 127 and Volume 32, p. 239. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 2 July 2015 email reporting the difference in weights and the different engine counts in each of the two batches.) Works numbers were 28542-28543 in July 1906, 28959, 29028-29029 in September; 32832, 32834-32835 in July 1908.

Low drivers, camelback layout, big Wootten firebox -- all the elements of a typical helper on this Anthracite region bridge line. Firebox heating surface area included 54 sq ft (5.02 sq m) of combustion chamber. Chris Hohl noted that the 1908 trio's estimated weights came to 137,200 lb (62,333 kg) on the drivers and 153,200 lb (69,490 kg) for the engine.

Baldwin's specification page also reveals that Baldwin responded to a 7 July 1908 letter from A G Machesney, making changes in the smoke box arrangement "to successfully burn buckwheat coal without mixing soft coal." Presumably for the same reason, the ash pan slide setup was changed; in particular, operation of the slides and the dampers were to be operated from the fireman's deck. (Remember that the fireman was 9 feet behind the engineer.)

All of the class was superheated; see Locobase 7049.


Class E-9 (Locobase 13694)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 36, p. 8. Works numbers were 35562-35564 in October 1910.

Changes in the E-9s from the earlier E-8s of 1906 (Locobase 12817) were focused on the firebox and the valve gear. The new class retained the low drivers and camelback layout. The E-8s' firebox had a 33-inch-long combustion chamber that contributed 54 sq ft to the firebox heating surface. In the E-9s, that combustion chamber was reduced to 6 inches(152 mm) and the difference more than made up in tube length. Given the usual trade off in heating power (6 sq ft of tubes = 1 sq ft of direct heating surface), the new engines gained a little. In addition, outside radial valve gear replaced the the inside link motion

All of the class was superheated; see Locobase 7049.


Class ES-10 (Locobase 7051)

Data from L&NE 8 - 1940 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. Works numbers were 32838-32839 in June 1908.

Camelbacks that formed part of the LC&N's stud when they were produced. They then worked for the subsidiary Panther Creek Railroad until sold in December 1913

All were sold to the Lehigh & New England in December 1913. 59 fell into class E-11 and was scrapped in November 1935. 58, put in class E-10, went to the ferro-knacker's in February 1941.


Class ES-12S (Locobase 2788)

Data from L&NE 8 - 1940 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Classic "Mother Hubbard" (or camelback) layout with the engineer's cab straddling the boiler ahead of the wide Wootten anthracite-burning firebox. Like the wide-firebox locomotives of many of the other anthracite roads in the region; this pair was superheated.

In the process, the railroad removed 174 small tubes to make room for the 38 flues that held the superheater tubes. Unusually for such makeovers, the combined heating surface actually increased and the E-12's available power rose substantially.


Class ES-14 (Locobase 412)

Data from L&NE 8 - 1940 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also "Lehigh & New England Consolidation Engine", Railway Journal, Volume 24, No 1 (January 1923), p. 16. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 16 September 2015 email reporting photographs that showed tender boosters on this class; and for his 12.March 2020 email querying an inconsistency in the class's designator) Works numbers were 63279-63282 in August 1922, 64397-64399 in May 1923.

Although their Wootten fireboxes were as wide as the earlier Mother Hubbards, these locomotives sported a conventional cab layout. The result was a pretty snug fit for the two crew, but it did rescue the fireman from his perilous perch on the footboard just ahead of a jouncing tender. Also, the firebox had arch tubes (38 sq ft/3.53 sq m) when delivered and more area from thermic syphons (109 sq ft/10.13 sq m) added later. contributing to its considerable heating surface (the most direct heating surface in a superheated Consolidation). Steam entered the cylinders through 14" (356 mm) piston valves. At the time, these were the heaviest Consolidations ever built.

Railway Journal's 1924 report noted that 2-8-0s had fallen out of favor. But this septet had proved "a most desirable type of locomotive. By careful designing, a boiler of sufficient capacity can be obtained for such service if road clearance doesn't impose too many restrictions."

RJ explained that the railroad's vertical clearance of 15 ft 8 1/2 in (4.79 m) meant that a large firebox could be carried above the drivers. Being close to coal fields reduced fuel costs and the line was Consolidation-heavy,

Chris Hohl's careful study of several ES-14 photographs led him to conclude that they had tender boosters. A roster compiled by George W Armstrong on 14 July 1958 gave details: "301-307 were equipped with Bethlehem Auxiliary Locomotives". These installations used connecting rods on tender axles.


Class ES-8 (Locobase 7049)

Data from L&NE 8 - 1940 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

The original configuration is shown in Locobase 12817. Locobase can't say when this set of camelbacks was superheated, but he can say that in the process, the railroad deleted the 33" combustion chamber.

Seven of the class was scrapped before World War II: 23 in October 1930; 28 In February 1934; 24-25 in March; 26 in October 1939; 21 in July 1941. Somehow 27 carried on through World War II and a few years after before meeting the scrapper in April 1950.


Class ES-9 (Locobase 13695)

Data from L&NE 8 - 1940 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Converting the E-9s shown in Locobase 13694 to superheat didn't require much of a makeover. Unlike the E-8s shown in Locobase 12817, which had a 33-inch combustion chamber that had to be removed, the E-9s were delivered with only a 6-inch combustion chamber that apparently stayed.

Two of the three E-9s were scrapped before the US entered World War II; 30 went in September 1939 and 31 followed in July 1940. 29 soldiered on and didn't encounter the ferro-knacker until July 1948.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Middle Run Media

ClassE-12E-13E-5E-6E-7
Locobase ID13696 6701 11488 12818 12816
RailroadLehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class322113
Road Numbers32-33 / 31-32, 153153-15415-1736-4618-20
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built312113
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinBurnham, Williams & Co
Year19111916190419131905
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertStephensonWalschaertStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16 / 4.8816 / 4.8814.25 / 4.3414 / 4.2714.25 / 4.34
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)25 / 7.6225 / 7.6222.33 / 6.8121.67 / 6.6122.33 / 6.81
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.65 0.64
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)58.67 / 17.8859.17 / 18.0453.33
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)205,000 / 92,987208,000 / 94,347120,000 / 54,431129,000 / 58,513126,000 / 57,153
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)228,000 / 103,419233,000 / 105,687140,000 / 63,503143,000 / 64,864141,000 / 63,957
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)144,000 / 65,317155,990 / 70,75680,000 / 36,287115,000 / 52,16380,000 / 36,287
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)372,000 / 168,736388,990 / 176,443220,000 / 99,790258,000 / 117,027221,000 / 100,244
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8000 / 30.308000 / 30.304000 / 15.156000 / 22.734000 / 15.15
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)14 / 1313.50 / 1211 / 1010 / 9
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)85 / 42.5087 / 43.5050 / 2554 / 2753 / 26.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)57 / 144857 / 144850 / 127050 / 127050 / 1270
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80180 / 12.40185 / 12.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)23.5" x 30" / 597x76225" x 30" / 635x76220" x 26" / 508x66019" x 26" / 483x66020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)49,412 / 22412.9350,329 / 22828.8832,708 / 14836.1231,912 / 14475.0635,360 / 16039.05
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.15 4.13 3.67 4.04 3.56
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)418 - 2" / 51244 - 2" / 51236 - 2.25" / 57234 - 2" / 51236 - 2.25" / 57
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)38 - 5.5" / 140
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)15.50 / 4.7215.83 / 4.8213.37 / 4.0814 / 4.2713.37 / 4.08
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)243 / 22.58240 / 22.30158.50 / 14.73167 / 15.52148.60 / 13.81
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)95 / 8.8395 / 8.8333.20 / 3.0976.50 / 7.1144.10 / 4.10
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3653 / 339.373107 / 288.752006 / 186.431872 / 173.981997 / 185.59
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)724 / 67.29
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3653 / 339.373831 / 356.042006 / 186.431872 / 173.981997 / 185.59
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume242.56182.34212.28219.46211.32
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation19,00017,100614215,3008820
Same as above plus superheater percentage19,00020,349614215,3008820
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area48,60051,40829,32333,40029,720
Power L1614210,861456552894832
Power MT264.21460.47335.47361.56338.18

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Middle Run Media

ClassE-8E-9ES-10ES-12SES-14
Locobase ID12817 13694 7051 2788 412
RailroadLehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class83127
Road Numbers21-2829-315832-33 / 31-32 / 151-152301-307
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built8327
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoBaldwinL&NEL&NEAlco-Schenectady
Year19061910191619111922
Valve GearStephensonWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.25 / 4.3414.25 / 4.3415.33 / 4.6716 / 4.8817.50 / 5.33
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.33 / 6.8122.33 / 6.8123.67 / 7.2125 / 7.6226.92 / 8.21
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.64 0.64 0.65 0.64 0.65
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)51.50 / 15.7051.50 / 15.7054.87 / 16.7259.17 / 18.0465.16 / 19.86
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)134,000 / 60,781137,200 / 62,233170,000 / 77,111204,650 / 92,828279,000 / 126,552
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)151,000 / 68,493153,200 / 69,490190,000 / 86,183224,850 / 101,990301,500 / 136,758
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)100,000 / 45,359120,000 / 54,431155,990 / 70,756155,990 / 70,756184,100 / 83,506
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)251,000 / 113,852273,200 / 123,921345,990 / 156,939380,840 / 172,746485,600 / 220,264
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 18.946000 / 22.738000 / 30.308000 / 30.3010,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)911 / 1013.50 / 1213.50 / 1216 / 15
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)56 / 2857 / 28.5071 / 35.5085 / 42.50116 / 58
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)50 / 127050 / 127056 / 142257 / 144861 / 1549
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80180 / 12.40200 / 13.80210 / 14.50
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66023" x 28" / 584x71123.5" x 30" / 597x76227" x 32" / 686x813
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)35,360 / 16039.0535,360 / 16039.0540,469 / 18356.4549,412 / 22412.9368,263 / 30963.61
Booster (lbs)14,920
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.79 3.88 4.20 4.14 4.09
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)272 - 2" / 51272 - 2" / 51188 - 2" / 51244 - 2" / 51301 - 2" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)28 - 5.375" / 13738 - 5.375" / 13750 - 5.375" / 137
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)11 / 3.3514 / 4.2715.50 / 4.7215.67 / 4.7815 / 4.57
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)237 / 22.03181 / 16.82204 / 18.96240 / 22.30380 / 35.30
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)84 / 7.8184 / 7.8094.50 / 8.7895 / 8.8384.30 / 7.83
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1792 / 166.542170 / 201.602342 / 217.663078 / 286.063665 / 340.49
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)531 / 49.35724 / 67.29901 / 83.70
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1792 / 166.542170 / 201.602873 / 267.013802 / 353.354566 / 424.19
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume189.63229.63174.00204.38172.80
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation16,80016,80017,01019,00017,703
Same as above plus superheater percentage16,80016,80020,07222,61021,244
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area47,40036,20043,33057,12095,760
Power L15250542310,16113,61813,764
Power MT345.50348.56527.09586.81435.05

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Middle Run Media

ClassES-8ES-9
Locobase ID7049 13695
RailroadLehigh & New England (L&NE)Lehigh & New England (L&NE)
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-0
Number in Class83
Road Numbers21-2829-31
GaugeStdStd
Number Built8
BuilderL&NEL&NE
Year
Valve GearStephensonWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.25 / 4.3414.25 / 4.34
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)22.33 / 6.8122.33 / 6.81
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.64 0.64
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)51.50 / 15.7052.17 / 15.90
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)138,480 / 62,814145,940 / 66,197
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)154,800 / 70,216162,940 / 73,908
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)130,000 / 58,967122,120 / 55,393
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)284,800 / 129,183285,060 / 129,301
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 22.736000 / 22.73
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)12.90 / 1214.30 / 13
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)58 / 2961 / 30.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)50 / 127050 / 1270
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x660
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)35,360 / 16039.0535,360 / 16039.05
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.92 4.13
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)152 - 2" / 51152 - 2" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)24 - 5.375" / 13724 - 5.375" / 137
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)13.75 / 4.1914 / 4.27
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)183 / 17.01183 / 17
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)84 / 7.8184 / 7.80
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1742 / 161.901760 / 163.51
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)394 / 36.62363 / 33.72
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2136 / 198.522123 / 197.23
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume184.34186.24
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation16,80016,800
Same as above plus superheater percentage19,82419,656
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area43,18842,822
Power L110,94010,480
Power MT696.67633.26

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