Norfolk & Western / Shenandoah Valley / Virginia-Carolina Railway 2-8-0 "Consolidation" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 1 / F (Locobase 11848)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 13, p 76. See also "Consolidation Locomotive for the Norfolk & Western Railroad", Railroad Gazette, Volume 17, (15 May 1885), pp. 305-308. Baldwin works numbers were 8031, 8035, 8037, 8040, 8043 in July 1886; 8442-8443, 8455-8456, 8459 in March 1887; 8467 in April; 8578-8579, 8582-8583 in May; 8607-8608 in June.

A couple of points to notice about this relatively large batch of Consolidations: at the grate level, the firebox is wider than the frame. In this period, most locomotives retained the deep firebox between the frames, which meant an average width of 33-34 inches. This firebox measured 42" across, which meant it had to sit above the drivers, not between them. [Later N & W documents would describe the firebox as "narrow".] Also, the safety valves were sealed and set at 140 psi, a little higher than the usual as well.

Most of the class was retired in the mid-teens.


Class 2 / F (Locobase 12917)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 28, p. 235. Works number was 27417 in February 1906 and 33025 in November 1908.


Class 61 (Locobase 12699)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 27, 10. Works number was 23999 in March 1904.

How unusual was it for Baldwin to offer a cross-compound locomotive; among the few produced was the B-class set for the Norfolk & Western in 1898 (Locobase 3197). And to manufacture a 10th engine and display it at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exhibition was an odd choice. Each of the two unequal-size cylinders had its own slide valve and steam from the HP cylinder took the usual route through a receiver at the front end before entering the LP cylinder.

It remained a cross-compound for only a short time before being converted to a simple-expansion 21" x 32" B-class Consolidation. It was scrapped in 1934.


Class B (Locobase 3197)

Data from 1929 Norfolk & Western locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (McShane (1899) also has details on this class, but does not include the boiler pressure.) See also DeGolyer , Volume 21, p. 139 and Volume 22, p. 291; and "Baldwin Two-Cylinder Compound Locomotive; Norfolk & Western Ry.", Engineering News , Volume XXXIX [39], No 24 (16 June 1898), pp. 387-388 Works numbers were 15746-15748 in February 1898, 15773-15775 in March, 16215 in September, and 17593-17594 in March 1900.

The Baldwin specifications sheet had some exacting requirements for this set of cross-compounds: "Guaranteed to develop tractive power up to the limit of adhesion while working at full stroke on 2.2% grade and to render thoroughly satisfactory service. Working of intercepting valve [to admit live steam to the LP cylinder when needed] guaranteed to be entirely satisfactory and to be protected against any royalties therefor."

According to [] (visited April 2003), this class was later simpled to two 21" x 32" (533 x 813 mm) cylinders and given piston valves.

Except for 62, which was scrapped in October 1933, all were were scrapped in July 1934.


Class G (Locobase 3137)

Data from 1929 N & W locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.See also R P C Sanderson, Division Superintendent, Norfolk & Western Railway, "Contributions--The Illinois Central Belpaire Boiler", (4 December 1891), p. 851. Baldwin's works numbers were 11581, 11583, 11587, 11607, 11609-11613, 11646 in February 1891; 12132-12137, 12140, 12144, 12147, 12158, 12160 in August 1891.

This very large class of Consolidations first entered N & W service when Rogers delivered the first batch in January of 1889. Richmond and Baldwin also supplied Gs over the next few years, the last arriving in 1893.

R P C Sanderson's critque of the staying in an Illinois Central Belpaire boiler included a somewhat unrelated comment on the value of large-diameter tubes such as was found in these Gs, which entered service at about the same time. Sanderson preferred larger ones than the 2" ones used in the IC engine. "Experience has shown us ...that even for a coal that is not noted for smoke or long flame, better results [come from] sacrificing some of the heating surface in the tubes and using 2 1/4" or 2 1/2" flues."

Why does this matter? "The flame is then not extinguished in the flue, as is the case with 2" flues, and the gases are burned in the flues instead of passing in a choked-out condition into the smokebox, losing a considerable portion of their heating efficiency."

Locobase wondered if the N&W walked Sanderson's talk. He sampled his 42 entries and found that virtually all had the larger tubes. These included all of the most famous classes such as the Big Three Y class 2-8-8-2s, A class 2-6-6-4s, and J class 4-8-4s.


Class G1 (Locobase 7821)

Data from N&W 3-1955 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This small batch of Consolidations was overshadowed by the Gs profiled in Locobase 317. But they represented a definite power upgrade with higher boiler pressure and more boiler heating surface on the same running gear.


Class I (Locobase 16463)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engine as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 12, p. 6; and Joseph H Sands, "Tests of Pocahontas and Cumberland Coals by Shenandoah Valley RR", The Virginias: A Mining, Industrial & Scientific Journal ..., Volume 5, No 5 (May 1884), pp. 88-89. Works numbers were 7059, 7061, 7054, 7071, 7096, 7278, 7285, 7291, and 7295.

The SVRR wanted to test two sources of coal. Sands commented on each beginning with the Pocahontas coal, which offered several positive values. It made a "very bright hot fire", "cokes on the grate even when slack is used", and "but a small proportion is carried off the grate by the draught." So the fireman wasn't kept too busy.

"The trains never stalled for want of steam on the heaviest grades,", Sands added, "and the engines throw much less fire than with the B&O coal." Even on the heaviest grades with the injectors kept full on, steam pressure would not fail ...[it] could be kept at blowing off point when the engines were working their hardest particular difficulty."

B&O Hampshire coal, on the other hand, always had "a dull lurid appearance. It "burns into holes and requires constant hooking and leveling." Moreover, "the dust coal seemed to fly right off the shovel and out through the stack." A light fire set the coal "dancing on the grate, and would not coke as the Pocahontas coal did." All of the test engines "threw more fire ...and the front ends would generally be packed full of sparks at the end of the trip."

Results were the inverse of Pocahontas coal. Trains "frequently stalled for want of steam on the grades." So weak was the coal's heating power, the engineer had to stop on grades " to fill up the boiler and geet up the steam pressure."


Class Q (Locobase 16464)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engine as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 11, p. 13; and Joseph H Sands, "Tests of Pocahontas and Cumberland Coals by Shenandoah Valley RR", The Virginias: A Mining, Industrial & Scientific Journal ..., Volume 5, No 5 (May 1884), pp. 88-89. Works numbers were 5854-5855, 6136-6137, and 6218.

Locobase 16463 describes a series of test run on two types of coal. Reporting on the quality of Pocahontas coal and its ease of firing, Joseph Sands reported that the 8 of this class ran the 239 miles between Roanoke and Hagerstown "without a hook being put into the fire.

See 16462-16463 for more of the Sands report.


Class T (Locobase 12067)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Vol 18, p. 168. Works numbers were 13274, 13278-13279, 13286-13287, 13290-13292, 13294, 13296; 13326-13328,

13332-13333, 13335 in March 1893; 13343, 13347-13348 in April; 13419 in May; 13562 in July; 13948-13956 in March 1894; and 13964 in April.

All of these were delivered as Vauclain compounds and all had Belpaire fireboxes. They retained the Belpaire fireboxes, but soon discarded the compounding setup in favor of relatively short stroke 21" x 24" simple-expansion cylinders.


Class W/W1 (Locobase 12314)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University, Volume 22, p. 20. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 4 December 2017 email noting the tender's coal capacity, later increase in water capacity, and an error in the builders field.) The class was divided between two builders. Baldwin supplied 800-829 and 845-854 (works numbers were 16350-16359 in November 1898, 16590-16594 in March 1899, 16673-16677 in April, 16771-16774 in May, 16823-16824, 16856-16859 in June.) Richmond supplied 855-864 (works number 3214-3223 and 870-879 (works number 3293-3302) in 1901. The N&W's own shops in Roanoke produced thd 830-844 (Works numbers were 153-167 in 1900-1901.)

All of this class of Consolidations were rebuilt as W1s. In the 1920s, the following engines were recast as 0-8-0T tank-engine switchers: 800, 802, 804, 806, 809, 821, 825. By then tender water capacity had increased to 5,000 US gallons (18,925 litres).

Most of the rest were scrapped in the late 1920s, but several enjoyed second careers on other Southern roads. 847 was sold in March 1924 to the Blackwood Coal & Coke Company. 808 was sold in July 1925 to the High Point, Thomasville & Denton. Martin Iron & Steel Company bought the 814 in October 1926, the same month the 847 joined the Norton & Northern -- a shortline operating in Virginia's Yellow Creek Valley and connecting Norton to Wise -- and 849 went to HM Waugh. In August 1927, the N & W sold the 828 to the East Tennessee & Western North Carolina.

812 and 849 went to the Chesapeake Western as their #108 and 107 through dealer H M Waugh in 1929.


Class W2 (Locobase 7823)

Data from N & W 3-1955 locomotive diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also Angus Sinclair, Railway & Locomotive Engineer, May 1902, pp. 195-196. Baldwin works numbers for its share:

1902

August 20818-20819, 20845-20847, 20884-20886

September 20934-20935, 20951-20953

October 21060-21061

1903

February 21622-21623, 21683, 21704

April 22059, 22061

June 22305, 22314, 22338, 22341, 22343, 22356, 22374

August 22652, 22654, 22693, 22696, 22700, 22734, 22744, 22756

September 22787, 22790, 22803, 22827

November 23151-23152, 23192-23193, 23226, 23232, 23267-23268, 23278. 23283

December 23311-23312, 23330-23331, 23370, 23390, 23414, 23419, 23441

1904

January 23504

March 23908, 23999

June 24383, 24387. 24400, 24408-24409, 24423

July 24498

1905

July 25968, 25983, 25984, 26010, 26028, 26031, 26048, 26054, 26090

September 26507-26508

October 26562, 26604

November 26759-26760, 26846, 26856, 26899

Alco's Cooke and Richmond works, Baldwin, and the N&W's own modern facility at Roanoke contributed to this large class of Consolidations. They were quite representative of turn-of -the-century locomotives - saturated boiler, piston valves, long stroke, and a wide firebox.

R & LE reported that "These engines have given excellent service, and are good steamers ...They will pull 1,100 tons up a 61-ft foot grade (1.2%) with moderate curvature."

Most of the class remained essentially unchanged throughout their long careers. Their tenders grew to hold 9,000 US gallons of water and 14 tons of coal. Scrapping began in the 1920s and had encompassed most of the class by the middle 1930s, but a few persisted until the 1950s.

NB: The Baldwin Specification book Volume 27, pp. 210-211 and Volume 28 show orders for road numbers 722-728, 708-714, 948-949, 673-681 with smaller boilers. By reducing the tube count by 60 to 213, the tube heating surface dropped to 1,694 sq ft and total evaporative heating surface down to 1,824 sq ft. None of the later N & W books of diagrams or classification (1912, 1929, e.g.) show any such subclass.)

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class1 / F2 / F61BG
Locobase ID11848 12917 12699 3197 3137
RailroadNorfolk & Western (N&W)Virginia-Carolina Railway (N & W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class48219133
Road Numbers1-26, 146-1872, 36162-70188-314, 346-351, 558-564
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built48219133
BuilderBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & Coseveral
Year18861906190418981889
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14 / 4.2714 / 4.2715.50 / 4.7215.50 / 4.7214.50 / 4.42
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)21.50 / 6.5521.50 / 6.5524.50 / 7.4724.50 / 7.4722 / 6.71
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.65 0.65 0.63 0.63 0.66
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)47.4255.66 / 16.9756.60 / 17.25
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)43,510 / 19,73632,600 / 14,787
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)93,90095,000 / 43,091155,000 / 70,307166,000 / 75,296106,780 / 48,435
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)107,675109,000 / 49,442175,000 / 79,379186,000 / 84,368120,565 / 54,687
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)60,000 / 27,21694,680 / 42,94662,800 / 28,486
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)169,000 / 76,658280,680 / 127,314183,365 / 83,173
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)3000 / 11.363000 / 11.366000 / 22.734000 / 15.154000 / 15.15
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)10 / 9 8.50 / 8 8.50 / 8
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)39 / 19.5040 / 2065 / 32.5069 / 34.5044 / 22
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)50 / 127050 / 127068 / 172756 / 142250 / 1270
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)140 / 9.70170 / 11.70200 / 13.80200 / 13.80150 / 10.30
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 24" / 508x61018" x 24" / 457x61023" x 32" / 584x813 (1)23" x 32" / 584x813 (1)20" x 24" / 508x610
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)35" x 32" / 889x813 (1)35" x 32" / 889x813 (1)
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)22,848 / 10363.6922,473 / 10193.5929,556 / 13406.3935,890 / 16279.4524,480 / 11103.95
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.11 4.23 5.24 4.63 4.36
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)180 - 2.25" / 57204 - 2" / 51306 - 2.25" / 57306 - 2.25" / 57194 - 2.25" / 57
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)12.56 / 3.8313.08 / 3.9914.50 / 4.4214.50 / 4.4212.75 / 3.89
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)146.40 / 13.61127.30 / 11.83195 / 18.12195 / 18.12161 / 14.96
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)30 / 2.7930 / 2.7935 / 3.2535.08 / 3.2631 / 2.88
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1468 / 136.431516 / 140.892788 / 259.112789 / 259.201770 / 164.50
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1468 / 136.431516 / 140.892788 / 259.112789 / 259.201770 / 164.50
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume168.16214.43362.40362.53202.75
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation42005100700070164650
Same as above plus superheater percentage42005100700070164650
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area20,49621,64139,00039,00024,150
Power L129404313478739443687
Power MT276.11400.36272.35209.52304.49

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassG1IQTW/W1
Locobase ID7821 16463 16464 12067 12314
RailroadNorfolk & Western (N&W)Shenandoah Valley (N&W)Shenandoah Valley (N&W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)Norfolk & Western (N&W)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-02-8-0
Number in Class14952175
Road Numbers200-206, 352-35842-50/549-5576-10/514-518316-335, 345800-864, 870-879
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built14952175
BuilderseveralBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoBurnham, Parry, Williams & CoBurnham, Williams & Coseveral
Year18971881188118931899
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonStephenson
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14 / 4.2714 / 4.2714 / 4.2714.83 / 4.5215.50 / 4.72
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)21.50 / 6.5514 / 4.2714 / 4.2722.75 / 6.9323.92 / 7.29
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.6511 0.65 0.65
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)48.46 / 14.77
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)107,000 / 48,53447,000 / 21,319150,000 / 68,039
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)120,785 / 54,787109,300 / 49,57873,250 / 33,226170,000 / 77,111
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)116,630 / 52,903
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)237,415 / 107,690
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)6000 / 22.733000 / 11.362200 / 8.334000 / 15.154500 / 17.05
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)13.80 / 139 / 8
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)45 / 22.5020 / 1063 / 31.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)50 / 127050 / 127063 / 160056 / 142256 / 1422
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40140 / 9.70140 / 9180 / 12.40200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 24" / 508x61020" x 24" / 508x61017" x 24" / 432x61014" x 24" / 356x61021" x 30" / 533x762
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)24" x 24" / 610x610
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)29,376 / 13324.7522,848 / 10363.6913,101 / 5942.5219,178 / 8699.0040,163 / 18217.65
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.64 3.59 3.73
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)192 - 2.5" / 64174 - 2.25" / 57161 - 2" / 51194 - 2.25" / 57263 - 2.25" / 57
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)13.13 / 413.08 / 3.9910.87 / 3.3113.60 / 4.1514.50 / 4.42
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)161 / 14.96142 / 13.19100 / 9.29168.67 / 15.68179.60 / 16.69
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)31 / 2.8829.80 / 2.7715.80 / 1.4732 / 2.9734.30 / 3.19
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1812 / 168.401483 / 137.771016 / 94.391878 / 174.542409 / 223.80
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)1812 / 168.401483 / 137.771016 / 94.391878 / 174.542409 / 223.80
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume207.56169.87161.01439.44200.25
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation55804172221257606860
Same as above plus superheater percentage55804172221257606860
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area28,98019,88014,00030,36135,920
Power L144972931353236385131
Power MT370.62662.70301.65

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassW2
Locobase ID7823
RailroadNorfolk & Western (N&W)
CountryUSA
Whyte2-8-0
Number in Class212
Road Numbers673-799+
GaugeStd
Number Built212
Builderseveral
Year1902
Valve GearBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.50 / 4.72
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)23.92 / 7.29
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.65
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)50.33 / 15.34
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)42,790 / 19,409
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)150,000 / 68,039
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)168,000 / 76,204
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)167,500 / 75,977
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)335,500 / 152,181
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.94
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)10 / 9
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)63 / 31.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)56 / 1422
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)21" x 30" / 533x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)40,163 / 18217.65
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.73
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)273 - 2.25" / 57
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)14.50 / 4.42
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)156 / 14.50
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)47.30 / 4.40
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2474 / 229.93
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2474 / 229.93
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume205.65
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation9460
Same as above plus superheater percentage9460
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area31,200
Power L15049
Power MT296.83

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