Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

The Clinchfield Railroad was an operating and holding company for the Carolina, Clinchfield and Ohio Railway. The line ran 277 miles from Elkhorn City, KY through Erwin, TN and on to Spartanburg, SC. It connected with the C&O at Elkhorn City and with the Southern and ACL in Spartanburg.

The Clinchfield was the last Class I railroad built in the U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains. Its main line provided access to numerous scenic wonders of the Appalachian region and is probably best-known for the state-of-the-art railroad engineering techniques applied in its construction, as exemplified by the Clinchfield Loops climbing the Blue Ridge Mountains north of Marion, North Carolina. The Clinchfield Railroad began operating the line December 1, 1924, and for many years it was leased jointly by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and Louisville and Nashville Railroad.

The Clinchfield Railroad bought nine 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1919 and another ten in 1923. The first group was designated as Class K-1 and assigned road numbers 400-408, the second group known as Class K-4 were given road numbers 410-419. These locomotives had 63" diameter drivers, 27" x 30" cylinders, a 190 psi boiler pressure, and exerted 56,064 pounds of tractive effort. The first eight weighed 309,160 pounds and the last ten weighed 319,700 pounds.

There were two more "Mikados on the Clinchfield, number 499, designated as Class K-2, which was purchased from the Cambria & Indiana Railroad, and number 498, designated as Class K-3, which was purchased from the Spanish-American Iron Company. These two second-hand locomotives arrived in 1917.

The Clinchfield sold all nine of its Class K-1 "Mikados" in February of 1943. Five, numbers 400, 401, 404, 405 and 408 were sold to the Charleston & Western Carolina Railroad and the other four went to the Georgia Railroad.

There are no surviving Clinchfield 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives.


Roster

ClassQty.Road NumbersFrom Other RRYear AcquiredYear BuiltBuilderNote
K-19400-4081919Baldwin1
K-21499Cambria & Indiana19171911Baldwin2
K-31498Spanish-American Iron Co.19171917Baldwin3
K-410410-4191923ALCO4
Notes:
  1. Numbers 400, 401, 404, 405 and 408 sold to the Charleston & Western Carolina Railroad in February 1943. Number 405 scrapped in 1948. Number 404 scrapped in 1950. Number 401 scrapped in 1951. Numbers 400 and 408 scrapped in 1952. Numbers 402, 403, 406 and 407 sold to the Georgia Railroad in February 1943. Numbers 402, 403, 406 and 407 scrapped in 1955.
  2. Bought from the Cambria & Indiana Railroad in 1917, ex C&I #4. Number 499 scrapped in 1952
  3. Bought from Spanish-American Iron Co. in 1917, ex S-AI Co. #70. Number 498 scrapped in 1952.
  4. Numbers 410-419 scrapped in 1952-1953.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class K-1 (Locobase 1316)

Data from CLINCH 1943ca Locomotive Diagrams and GA (Georgia Railroad) 1954 supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 56, pp. 444+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 24 Novem ber 2023 email noting the original tender capacities and weight and for the lower Baldwin estimate of superheater area.) Works numbers were 51260, 51273-51274, 51440-51442 in February 1919; 51524-51525, 51565 in March.

One of two identical Mikado classes that were not built under the United States Railroad Administration. For reasons most likely due to the US entry into World War One and Baldwin's broad activity in war production, this class wasn't produced until two years after it was ordered on 12 March 1917.

The railroad retained a relatively conservative firebox layout in which 38 sq ft (3.53 sq m) from five arch tubes supplemented the basic firebox heating surface. Piston valves measured 15" (381 mm) in diameter. Baldwin's specs credited the superheater installation with 993 sq ft.(92.25 sq m) area.

According to Chris Hohl, the specs showed tenders weighing 180,000 lbs (81,647 kg) when filled with 15 tons (13.6 metric tons) of coal and 10,000 gallons (37,850 litres) and contributed to a total wheelbase of 69' 1½" (21.07 m). Locobase's specs shows the later tender carrying 20% more water.

World War II traffic levels led to a motive power shortage, which the War Board addressed by requiring the Clinchfield to buy eight 4-6-6-4 Challengers in 1943. As they replacesd the K-1s in Clinchfield , the entire class balanced power on other railroad, The independent Charleston & Western Carolina took 5--400-401, 404-405, 408--as class M 850-854,. . In November 1948, a boiler explosion destroyed the 853 at Clarks Hill, South Carolina. The other four went to the ferro-knacker. 852 fell firest in July 1950, followed 851 in November 1951, and 850, 854 in March 1952.

The other four went to the Georgia Railroad 4--402-403, 406-407--as their Class F63, road numbers 500-503, changed in 1948 to 331-334) in 1943. All four were reitred in favor of diesles on 1 July 1954.


Class K-3 (Locobase 14214)

Data from Baldwin Locomotive Works Specification for Engines as digitized by the DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University Volume 54, p. 213. Works number was 45356 in March 1917.

According to a 25 May 2012 email to Wes Barris's [] from Bill Root and confirmed by the Baldwin specification, this engine was ordered by Cuban-based Spanish-American Iron Company in October 1916 as part of a three-locomotive batch numbered 70-72. When the 70 was ready for delivery, however, the SAIC did not take delivery and the engine was sold in April 1917 to the Clinchfield. (The other two were sold to the Savannah & Atlanta; see Locobase 9157).

The Baldwin specs was to haul 58 ore cars that each weighed 50,000 lb (22,680 kg) empty and 100,000 lb (45,360 kg) gross or a total of 1,450 revenue tons. Apparently the 498's lack of superheater didn't faze the Clinchfield, which operated the 498 into the 1940s.


Class K-4 (Locobase 1317)

Data from CLINCH 1943ca Locomotive Diagrams book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

Photo in Drury (1993) shows drum-like sand and steam domes, the headlight positioned under the smokebox, and airpumps fastened to the front of the smokebox. These big engines used 15" (381 mm) piston valves to supply steam to their relatively large cylinders.

Operated until 1952-1955.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassK-1K-3K-4
Locobase ID1316 14214 1317
RailroadCarolina, Clinchfield & Ohio (Clinchfield)Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio (Clinchfield)Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio (Clinchfield)
CountryUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class9110
Road Numbers400-408498410-419
GaugeStdStdStd
Number Built9110
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinAlco-Brooks
Year191919171924
Valve GearBakerWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)16.50 / 5.0314 / 4.2716.50 / 5.03
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)36.02 / 10.9831.25 / 9.5236.52 / 11.13
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.46 0.45 0.45
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)72.48 / 22.0962.67 / 19.1075.35 / 22.97
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)58,000 / 26,30860,500 / 27,442
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)232,000 / 105,234175,000 / 79,379235,200 / 106,685
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)309,160 / 140,233228,000 / 103,419317,700 / 144,106
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)215,700 / 97,840144,000 / 65,317209,000 / 94,801
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)524,860 / 238,073372,000 / 168,736526,700 / 238,907
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)12,000 / 45.458000 / 30.3012,000 / 45.45
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)15 / 1410 / 916 / 15
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)97 / 48.5073 / 36.5098 / 49
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)63 / 160051 / 129563 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)190 / 13.10190 / 13.10190 / 13.10
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)27" x 30" / 686x76222" x 28" / 559x71127" x 30" / 686x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)56,064 / 25430.2342,915 / 19465.9456,064 / 25430.23
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.14 4.08 4.20
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)209 - 2.25" / 57428 - 2" / 51
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)42 - 5.5" / 140
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)21 / 6.4018.50 / 5.64
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)287 / 26.67197 / 18.30
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)78 / 7.2563 / 5.8576 / 7.06
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4117 / 382.624323 / 401.62
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1042 / 96.84
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)5159 / 479.464323 / 401.62
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume207.09350.89
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation14,82011,97014,440
Same as above plus superheater percentage17,78411,97014,440
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area65,43637,430
Power L114,9836958
Power MT569.51350.62

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Wes Barris