Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 2-8-2 "Mikado" Locomotives in the USA

Beginning in 1915, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway started adding "Mikados" to its roster. The first group of 29 was delivered from the Baldwin Locomotive Works between 1915 and 1918. These locomotives had 58" drivers and were designated as Class L1 and assigned road numbers 600-628. The second batch of 2-8-2s was a group of 10 ALCO-built USRA "Mikado-Light" locomotives allocated by the USRA and were designated as Class L2 and assigned road numbers 650-659. The last group of 2-8-2s came from Baldwin between 1922 and 1923. They were designated as Class L2a and assigned

road numbers 660-671. These locomotives had 63" drivers, 26" x 30" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 54,725 pounds of tractive effort.

There are no surviving NC&StL 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives.


Roster

ClassQty.Road NumbersYear BuiltBuilderNotes
L1-5529600-6281915-1918Baldwin
L2-5510650-6591918ALCOUSRA allocated "Mikado-Light" locomotives
L2a-5512660-6711922-1923Baldwin

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class L1-55 (Locobase 5447)

Data from NC&StL 6 - 1951 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange and from table in May 1916 issue of Railway Mechanical Engineer (RME). See also Richard E Prince, The Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis Railway: history and steam locomotives (Salt Lake City, Utah: Wheelwright Lithographing Company, 1967; reprinted 2001 by Indiana U Press), p. 130; and DeGolyer, Vol 51, pp.228+ and Vol 58, pp. 127+.

Works numbers were:

1915

February 41904-41908; March 41928-41932; October 42607-42611

1916

January 42826-42829;

1918

April 48223-48224; May 48574-48575, 48735,48779; June 48903, 48953, 49084; July 49234

These Mikes were the "Jitneys" to their crews (Charles B Castner in Drury (1993) doesn't say why). Among the lightest Mikes of their time, these well-balance engines served the main freight drags for years. Their relatively small dimensions included a cylinder volume that was served by 15" (381 mm) piston valves. As delivered, these Mikes had 26.6 sq ft (2.5 sq m) of arch tubes. A later retrofit deleted two of the four tubes and installed 73 sq ft (6.8 sq m) of thermic syphons to arrive at the firebox heating surface area shown in the specifications.

Prince observes: "...the L1 Mikado proved to be the most flexible freight engine on the road, operating as needed into Atlanta, Memphis, Martin, and Paducah." Prince added that in later years, the class would work as helpers and west of Nashville.

Their retirements occurred over an 8-year period from 1942-1950.


Class L2-55 (Locobase 8331)

Data from NC&StL 9 - 1934 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This appears to be a one-off experiment in which the railroad took one of its Light USRA Mikados (Locobase 30) and introduced Type E superheating. This required considerable modification of the boiler and the installation of a front-end multiple throttle, reduction of the arch tube area to 14 sq ft (1.30 sq m) in favor of 73 sq ft of thermic syphon (6.78 sq m). 656 retained most of the rest of the system (same grate, same 14"/356 mm piston valves).

Although the result presumably generated a good more power., the NC & StL did not modify any others.


Class L2-55 (USRA) (Locobase 11104)

Data from NC&StL 9 - 1934 Locomotive Diagram book supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange.

This was the basic USRA light Mikado (Locobase 40) with its generous grate and 14" piston valves as later modified by the NC & StL to boost its firebox heating surface. Deleting two of the arch tubes made room for 73 sq ft of thermic syphons. For some reason, the 650s wheelbase was slightly extended, especially in the firebox. One of the class -- 656 -- is shown in Locobase 8331 because of its very high superheat ratio.


Class L2A-55 (Locobase 11103)

Data from NC&StL 9 - 1925 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. See also DeGolyer, Volume 68, pp. 213+ and 223+. 55634-55635, 55681-55683 in September 1922; 55905-55907 in December; 56025-56026, 56098-56099 in January 1923.

After taking ten USRA Light Mikados (Locobase 40) in 1918, the NC&St L adopted the power dimensions but had Baldwin redo the boiler to add more superheater area. They had considerable supplementary direct heating surface area in the combustion chamber (52 sq ft /4.8 sq m), thermic syphons (81 sq ft/7.5 sq m), and fire brick tubes (14 sq ft/1.3 sq m). Fourteen-inch (356 mm) piston valves supplied the cylinders. Also fitted with Vanderbilt tenders, Precision power reverse gear, and cast trailing trucks with boosters.

Together with the USRA engines, these L2s "...handled mainline freights systemwide through World War II ..." according to Charles B Castner, writing in Drury (1993). They finished their days as pushers in the Cumberland Mountains.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

ClassL1-55L2-55L2-55 (USRA)L2A-55
Locobase ID5447 8331 11104 11103
RailroadNashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (NC&StL)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Number in Class2911012
Road Numbers600-628656650-659660-671
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built291012
BuilderBaldwinNC&StLAlco-SchenectadyBaldwin
Year1915192819181922
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)15.75 / 4.8015.75 / 4.8016.75 / 5.1116.75 / 5.11
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)34.33 / 10.4636.08 / 1136.92 / 11.2536.92 / 11.25
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.46 0.44 0.45 0.45
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)69.62 / 21.2271.37 / 21.7571.37 / 21.7573.21 / 22.31
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)213,000 / 96,615220,000 / 99,790226,000 / 102,512226,600 / 102,784
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)272,000 / 123,377290,000 / 131,542303,000 / 137,439306,200 / 138,890
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)148,000 / 67,132191,340 / 86,790191,340 / 86,790175,000 / 79,379
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)420,000 / 190,509481,340 / 218,332494,340 / 224,229481,200 / 218,269
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)8000 / 30.3010,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.8810,000 / 37.88
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)13.50 / 1216 / 1516 / 1516 / 15
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)89 / 44.5092 / 4694 / 4794 / 47
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)58 / 147363 / 160063 / 160063 / 1600
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)25" x 30" / 635x76226" x 30" / 660x76226" x 30" / 660x76226" x 30" / 660x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)49,461 / 22435.1654,724 / 24822.4254,724 / 24822.4254,724 / 24822.42
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.31 4.02 4.13 4.14
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)241 - 2" / 5166 - 2.25" / 57216 - 2.25" / 57190 - 2.25" / 57
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)34 - 5.375" / 137164 - 3.5" / 8940 - 5.5" / 14045 - 5.5" / 140
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)20.50 / 6.2518.50 / 5.6419 / 5.7919 / 5.79
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)328 / 30.48377 / 35.04377 / 35.04351 / 32.61
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)66.70 / 6.2066.70 / 6.2066.70 / 6.2066.70 / 6.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3881 / 360.693843 / 357.163874 / 360.043694 / 343.18
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)842 / 78.251600 / 148.70882 / 81.971060 / 98.48
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4723 / 438.945443 / 505.864756 / 442.014754 / 441.66
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume227.76208.41210.09200.33
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation12,00613,34013,34013,340
Same as above plus superheater percentage14,16717,20915,87516,275
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area69,66797,26689,72685,644
Power L113,37622,92215,59917,070
Power MT553.78918.81608.67664.30

All material Copyright © SteamLocomotive.com
Wes Barris