Louisiana & Arkansas 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler" Locomotives in the USA


Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class 170 (Locobase 6134)

Data from DeGolyer, Volume 26, p. 17. Works numbers were 22604-22605 in August 1903; 22952, 23015, 23113 in October; 23121 in November; 23643, 23658 in January 1904.

All eight of this Ten-wheeler order were delivered in the setup shown in the specifications above. Over time, however, the class was modified, ultimately being divided into two groups. See Locobases 6135 and 16374.


Class 170 - 63"" (Locobase 16374)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied in March 2004 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection.

Locobase 6134 shows the entire class of eight Ten-wheelers as they were when they entered service in 1903. This set of four used the same modified boiler and firebox as the 57" variant (Locobase 6135). The quartet's role changed, however, with the installation of 3" (76.2 mm) blind tires on the original wheel centers and 3 1/2" (89 mm) rims on the new 56" diameter wheels.

Sifting through several compilations (Marre and Sommers, Vollrath, and Witbeck) supplied by Allen Stanley, Locobase isn't quite sure what were the various configurations of this sub-class. He deduces that the taller drivers came first and were powered by cylinders bushed to 19" (483 mm) and boilers pressed to 180 psi. Then the modified boiler and firebox permitted 200 psi pressures for steam delivered to the original 20" diameter.

Unlike the 57" set, these engines left service for the scrapyard over a fourteen-year span beginning in November 1936 and ending with 177 being cut up in August 1950.


Class 173 (Locobase 6135)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004 and Harold K Vollrath, "Locomotives of the Louisiana & Arkansas"

Locobase 6134 shows the entire class of eight Ten-wheelers as they were when they entered service in 1903. This set of four used the same modified boiler and firebox as the 63" variant (Locobase 16374, but retained the freight-sized drivers of the originals (when allowing for post-delivery fitting of thicker tires) as well as the 180-psi pressure setting. The latter was later increased to the 200 psi shown in the specs.

Three of the four were scrapped at Minden between November 1936 and March 1937. 175 was sold to Delta Hardwood in January 1935.


Class 200 (Locobase 6136)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004; and DeGolyer, Volume 28, p. 99. Works numbers were 26445-26446 in September 1905, 26950-26951 in November; 27766, 27794 in March 1906; and 28855-28856 in August.

The freight-oriented 170 class shown in Locobase 6134 was joined three years later by this similar, but larger octet. Like the 170s, they arrived with tenders carrying 10 tons (9.1 metric tons) of coal and 56" (1,422 mm) drivers. Larger tires increased driver diameter to 57", resulting in a slightly lower starting tractive effort.

One -- 200 -- later had its cylinders bushed down to 19 1/4" for a commensurate drop in tractive effort. These freight haulers broke the 20 tons per axle mark.


Class 400 (Locobase 6138)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. See also DeGolyer, Volume 40, pp. 128+; Volume 46, pp. 251+ and 256+. Works numbers were 37714-37715 in April 1912, 39552-39553 in March 1913, 39702-39703 in April.

Although still using saturated steam, these Ten-wheelers were the first with real size about them on the L&A. The axle loadings were reasonably dense, the boiler large, and the tractive effort promised some good medium-duty freight hauling. The engines rode on 75 lb/yard (37.5 kg/metre) rail on the main line (60 lb/30 kg on the sidings), but had gentle grades (1%) and curves (4 degrees) to contend with.

The first two had 192-sq ft(17.88 sq m) fireboxes, the succeeding class had the slightly larger furnaces shown in the specs. Another change was the switch from Richardson balance slide valves to 12" (305 mm) piston valves in 403-406.

All specs contained aa additional note that stood out from a series of instructions on spring rigging and equalizers: "Easy riding qualities are much desired." The specs replaced the original 12 Wire Gauge Tyler Charcoal Iron tubes to thicker 11 WG Spellerized steel from National Tube Company.

All of them were rebuilt in 1927-1931 with 22" cylinders and renumbered 506-511. At some later date, the class received oil-burning fireboxes. In place of the 14 tons of coal, the tender now held 3,616 US gallons (13,687 litres) and now weighed 153,000 lb (69,400 kg).

506 was sold in March 1948 to the Tremont & Gulf. (The T&G was a logging road in Northeast Louisiana that opened in 1905 and ultimately extended a total of 98.5 miles in 4 directions. See Jack M Willis "Early railroads built for mills: Tremont operations supported by T&GRailroad in NE Louisiana" hosted on [], last accessed 28 March 2010.)

Three -- 507-508, 510 -- were sold directly to the South Shore Railroad--a gravel pit operation based just north of Baton Rouge, La--in 1947-1948. 509 went to the Louisiana Midland first, then over to the South Shore.


Class 500 (Locobase 6139)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. See also DeGolyer, Vol 53, pp. 346+ and Vol 59, pp. 428+. Works numbers were 43998 in August 1916, 44105 in September, and 53105-53106, 53178-53179 in April 1920.

At the time of the book, these were the only superheated locomotives on the L & A and used 12" (305 mm) piston valves to supply the cylinders with steam. Freight haulers with some good power and among the largest Ten-wheelers being built in North America, they were now heavy enough to have broken the 25-ton axle loading level. Even so, they were probably a bit slippery.

The USRA's diagram shows 218 small tubes, an increase over the Baldwin specs of two years earlier; the latter reproduce the Locomotive Superheater Company's Specification No. P-1161. Indeed, all of the heating surfaces are greater except for the superheater:. 2,537 sq ft (235.7 sq m) evaporative including 200 sq ft (18.6 sq m) in the firebox, 500 sq ft (46.4 sq m) of superheater area. Boiler pressure is shown as 200 psi. (13.8 bar).

The Southern gear was replaced by Walschaert gear during major overhauls at the Minden shops in the late 1930s. It may have been at that time that the class received oil-burning fireboxes. In place of the 14 tons of coal, the tender now held 3,616 US gallons (13,687 litres) and now weighed 153,000 lb (69,400 kg).

Note that when Baldwin duplicated the 1916 design, the dimensions matched those of the earlier specification, not the USRA numbers;see Locobase 16352).

The L&A dieselized in the late 1940s and scrapped the 501 in November 1947 and the 500 in May 1948.


Class 502 (Locobase 16352)

Data from 1918 USRA diagram book of L&A locomotives supplied by Allen Stanley in March 2004. See also DeGolyer, Volume 59, pp. 428+. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 21 April 2018 email noting sufficient differences between the first two of the class and the remainder for Locobase to decide to create a separate entry.) Works numbers were 53105-53106, 53178-53179 in April 1920.

This order repeated the basic dimensions of the 500-501 (Locobase 6139). By this time, the L&A had already decided to replace the earlier pair's Southern valve gear with the more universally known Walschaert setup.

Ten-wheelers that employed a useful amount of superheat, they used 12" (305 mm) piston valves to supply the cylinders with steam. At some later date, the class received oil-burning fireboxes. In place of the 14 tons of coal, the tender now held 3,616 US gallons (13,687 litres) and now weighed 153,000 lb (69,400 kg).

Among the largest Ten-wheelers being built in North America, the 502-505 added good power to the class and served for decades.

Three of the 1920 batch found new homes after the L&A dieselized. Louisiana Midland picked up 503 in May 1948, 502 joined the Texas & Northern in April 1949, and 504 was bought by the Texas Southeastern in January 1950. 505 was scrapped in December 1953.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class170170 - 63""173200400
Locobase ID6134 16,374 6135 6136 6138
RailroadLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & Arkansas
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-04-6-0
Number in Class84486
Road Numbers170-177170-172, 177173-176200-207400-405/506-511
GaugeStdStdStdStdStd
Number Built886
BuilderBurnham, Williams & CoL&AL&ABurnham, Williams & CoBaldwin
Year1903192319061912
Valve GearStephensonStephensonStephensonStephensonWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14 / 4.2714 / 4.2714 / 4.2714 / 4.2714.83 / 4.52
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)24 / 7.3224 / 7.3224 / 7.3224 / 7.3225.50 / 7.77
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)53.54 / 16.3255.21 / 16.8355.21 / 16.8362.29 / 18.99
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)38,668 / 17,54036,995 / 16,78140,350 / 18,30247,150 / 21,387
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)109,365 / 49,607114,365 / 51,875109,365 / 49,607119,340 / 54,132139,750 / 63,390
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)139,085 / 63,088149,397 / 67,765139,085 / 63,088152,000 / 68,946179,000 / 81,193
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)100,000 / 45,359104,300 / 47,310115,700 / 52,481115,700 / 52,481149,100 / 67,631
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)239,085 / 108,447253,697 / 115,075254,785 / 115,569267,700 / 121,427328,100 / 148,824
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)5000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.945000 / 18.947000 / 26.52
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)10 / 9.1012 / 10.902250 / 8.5012 / 10.9014 / 12.70
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)61 / 30.5064 / 3261 / 30.5066 / 3378 / 39
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)56 / 142263 / 160057 / 144857 / 144857 / 1448
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)180 / 12.40180 / 12.40200 / 13.80200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)20" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 483x66020" x 26" / 508x66020" x 26" / 508x66021" x 28" / 533x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)28,414 / 12888.3925,257 / 11456.4031,018 / 14069.5431,018 / 14069.5436,827 / 16704.47
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.85 4.53 3.53 3.85 3.79
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)174.70 / 16.23166 / 15.43166 / 15.42165 / 15.33200 / 18.58
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)24.80 / 2.3024.80 / 2.3024.80 / 2.3033.30 / 3.0934.20 / 3.18
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2143 / 199.092134 / 198.332134 / 198.252302 / 213.942901 / 269.51
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2143 / 199.092134 / 198.332134 / 198.252302 / 213.942901 / 269.51
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume226.68225.73225.73243.50258.45
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation44644464496066606840
Same as above plus superheater percentage44644464496066606840
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area31,44629,88033,20033,00040,000
Power L153605926595762856603
Power MT324.15342.71360.25348.32312.50

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class500502
Locobase ID6139 16,352
RailroadLouisiana & ArkansasLouisiana & Arkansas
CountryUSAUSA
Whyte4-6-04-6-0
Number in Class22
Road Numbers500-501502-505
GaugeStdStd
Number Built22
BuilderBaldwinBaldwin
Year19161920
Valve GearSouthernWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14.83 / 4.5214.83 / 4.52
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)25.50 / 7.7725.50 / 7.77
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.58 0.58
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)61.67 / 18.8061.67 / 18.80
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)51,600 / 23,40551,600 / 23,405
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)153,000 / 69,400153,000 / 69,400
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)194,000 / 87,997194,000 / 87,997
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)143,300 / 65,000143,300 / 65,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)337,300 / 152,997337,300 / 152,997
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)7000 / 26.527000 / 26.52
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT)14 / 12.7014 / 12.70
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)85 / 42.5085 / 42.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)57 / 144857 / 1448
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)200 / 13.80200 / 13.80
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 28" / 559x71122" x 28" / 559x711
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)40,418 / 18333.3240,418 / 18333.32
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 3.79 3.79
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)200 / 18.58188 / 17.47
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)34.40 / 3.2034.40 / 3.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2449 / 227.522449 / 227.52
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)548 / 50.91548 / 50.91
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)2997 / 278.432997 / 278.43
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume198.80198.80
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation68806880
Same as above plus superheater percentage81188118
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area47,20044,368
Power L112,92612,834
Power MT558.76554.79

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