New York, New Haven & Hartford 4-6-4 "Hudson" Locomotives in the USA

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad bought 10 Class I-5 Hudsons (road numbers 1400 through 1409) from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. These locomotives were semi-streamlined with a bullet nose and were used to handle fast trains between New Haven and Boston. These were the first streamlined steam locomotives delivered in the USA.

Streamlining on these locomotives was designed in such a way that made it possible to easily access the running gear and all other maintainable parts of the locomotive.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class I-5 (Locobase 187)

Data from 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia and from NH 1962 Steam Locomotives diagram book supplied in March 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection. See also Kenneth Cartwright, "The New Haven Streamlined Locomotives", Baldwin Locomotive Magazine, Volume 15, No 4 (April 1937), pp. 2- (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error.) Works numbers ran 61964-61973 in 1936

Firebox heating surface included 139 sq ft of syphons (3) and 81 sq ft of combustion chamber. The cylinders were fed through 11" (279 mm) piston valves. The New Haven calculated water evaporation at 59,359 lb (26,925 kg) /hour of which the direct heating surface accounted for 26,400 lb (11,975 kg)/hour. This could be set against the max consumption of 51,626 lb (23,417 kg) /hour, yielding a boiler factor of 115%.

Other features included an integral cast frame and roller bearings on the drivers (Timkens on 1401-1404, SKF on the rest) and ASF roller bearings on the leading and trailing trucks.

The Catskill Archive of old writeups about steam locomotives includes a late 1930s article on the I-5 -- [], accessed 22 January 2007. According to the account, Baldwin's hearty Hudsons responded to a requirement that the new engines be able to muscle 12-car, 830-ton (755-tonne) trains up the Sharon Heights 0.6-0.7% grades at 60 mph (97 kph). Cartwright, a New Haven mechanical engineer, noted the railroad's typical schedule and commented: "Obviously , if a train is frequently slowed down to 40 or 45 miles per hour, it i snecessdary to get the speed back to 70 or 80 miles per hour as quickly as possible if right schedules are to be maintained." An additional requirement that the locomotives be able to run on the lighter-built New Haven-Springfield section limited weight.

The New Haven received everything they asked for. Every day eight of the ten streamliners worked the Merchant's Limited between New Haven and Boston on 24 daily trips with the other two in repair or reserve. The I-5s were reliable, but their latent power could not be fully exploited because of speed restrictions on the line.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Locobase ID187
RailroadNew York, New Haven & Hartford (NYNH&H)
Number in Class10
Road Numbers1400-1409
Number Built10
Valve GearWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)14 / 4.27
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)40.08 / 12.22
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase 0.35
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)84.83 / 25.86
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)64,400 / 29,211
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)193,000 / 87,543
Engine Weight (lbs / kg)365,300 / 165,697
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)332,000 / 150,593
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)697,300 / 316,290
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)18,000 / 68.18
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)16 / 15
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)107 / 53.50
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm)80 / 2032
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)285 / 19.70
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)22" x 30" / 559x762
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)43,968 / 19943.57
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.39
Heating Ability
Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)199 - 2.25" / 57
Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)48 - 5.5" / 140
Flue/Tube length (ft / m)18 / 5.49
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)480 / 44.61
Grate Area (sq ft / m2)77.10 / 7.17
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)3815 / 354.55
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)1042 / 96.84
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)4857 / 451.39
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume289.02
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation21,974
Same as above plus superheater percentage26,588
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area165,528
Power L144,889
Power MT1538.29

All material Copyright ©
Wes Barris