The C&O bought two 4-8-2s from the American Locomotive Company and designated them Class J-1. They were assigned road numbers 316 and 317 and were put to test in June, 1911. Another one, road number 318, was ordered and delivered from ALCO in 1912. All three worked well in passenger service.
In 1918, three "Mountains" (road numbers 133 through 135) with 69" drivers were received from ALCO and two (road numbers 136 and 137) came from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. These five locomotives were built according to USRA specifications and were of the Heavy Mountain design and were designated Class J-2 by the C&O.
In June of 1923, a final two of the Class J-2 locomotives (road numbers 138 and 139) were delivered by ALCO. By 1924, all ten of the C&O "Mountains" were renumbered 540 through 549.
The C&O had a locomotive modernization program in the 1930s and the seven Class J-2 "Mountains received new cabs, new feedwater heaters, the flying-pump front ends, a general overhaul and Vanderbilt tenders.
All ten of the "Mountains" were retired and scrapped by 1952.
Data from C&O 9-1936 and C&O 12-1946 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Many thanks to Chris Hohl for his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries.) A Locobase macro caused the error .)49840-49841 in May 1911 and 50848 in March 1912.The firebox heating surface included 28 sq ft (2.6 sq m) of arch tubes. These are considered to be the first of the Mountain type, originally built for the C&O to handle 700 tons over the Clifton Forge Division in the Allegheny Mountains. Eugene L Huddleston, writing in the November 2000 issue of the Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Magazine ("C&O's J-1 & K-1"), notes that the J-1s could hit the desired speeds with a heavy train (10 cars). Yet, the design had "ridiculously low drivers" and "extremely long main rods." In addition to the effects accompanying the high rpm of such small drivers at high speeds, driving the set on the third axle increased the dynamic augment and hence the stress on the tracks. (Most Mountains, says Huddleston, were driven on the second axle.) A late-1920s solution involved lengthening the piston rod and supporting the longer Alligator crosshead guide with a second yoke. That the design had power was undeniable -- combustion chamber, superheater, huge boiler, automatic smoker. The trio enjoyed a long career on the two mountain divisions on which they ran because the large boiler meant plenty of steam and the low drivers were less of a liability.
Data from tables in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia and from American Locomotive Company, Standardized Locomotives, US Railroad Administration (Alco Pamphlet 10049, 1918), pp. 30-31, reprinted by (Ocean, NJ: Specialty Press , 1973), and DeGolyer, Volume 57, pp. 121+. See also Robert A LeMassena, "The USRA HEAVY 4-8-2 and its Illustrious Ascendants", Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Newsletter (Vol 23, #2 - Spring 2003).See also "Standard Equipment Specialties," Railway Mechanical Engineer, Vol 93, No 3 (March 1919), pp. 137-138 for a list of all the "special equipment" by manufacturers--everything from air brakes to lubricators to rolled steel wheels--and the USRA designs on which they appeared. Only 15 "Heavy" mountains entered service under the USRA aegis. Baldwin built two engines for the C&O, Alco-Brooks supplied three more to the C&O as well as 10 more to the N&W. LeMassena argues, however, that this particular design influenced not only 4-8-2 designs, but also encouraged the development of the larger 4-8-4.
Data from C&O 9 - 1936 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange collection. Works numbers were 64216-64217 in July 1923.).Although based on the USRA heavy Mountain (Locobase 232) and duplicating many of the specs,. this pair of 4-8-2s came fitted with Walschaert's constant-lead radial valve gear and, by 1936, also included a Worthington Number 5 feed water heater and 99 sq ft (0.92 sq m) of thermic syphons in the firebox. The five USRA J-2s (Locobase 1420) benefited from similar additions--such as the Worthington feed water heater--and deletions like the arch tubes. They retained their Baker gear and their firebox heating surface area had more-115 sq ft (10.7 sq m)--thermic syphon area.
Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
|Railroad||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)||Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)|
|Number in Class||3||5||7|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Driver Wheelbase (ft / m)||16.50 / 5.03||18.25 / 5.56||18.25 / 5.56|
|Engine Wheelbase (ft / m)||37.42 / 11.41||40 / 12.19||40 / 12.19|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheelbase||0.44||0.46||0.46|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m)||76.11 / 23.20||75.70 / 23.07||75.70 / 23.07|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg)|
|Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg)||238,000 / 107,955||243,000 / 110,223||246,850 / 111,969|
|Engine Weight (lbs / kg)||330,000 / 149,686||352,500 / 159,892||363,550 / 164,904|
|Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg)||219,100 / 99,382||194,200||300,000 / 136,078|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg)||549,100 / 249,068||546,700||663,550 / 300,982|
|Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML)||12,000 / 45.45||10,000 / 37.88||16,000 / 60.61|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / Liters/MT)||15 / 14||16 / 15||2016 / 7631|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m)||99 / 49.50||101 / 50.50||103 / 51.50|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Driver Diameter (in / mm)||62 / 1575||69 / 1753||69 / 1753|
|Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa)||180 / 12.40||200 / 13.80||200 / 13.80|
|High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm)||29" x 28" / 737x711||28" x 30" / 711x762||28" x 30" / 711x762|
|Tractive Effort (lbs / kg)||58,110 / 26358.28||57,948 / 26284.80||57,948 / 26284.80|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.10||4.19||4.26|
|Tubes (number - dia) (in / mm)||241 - 2.25" / 57||247 - 2.25" / 57||247 - 2.25" / 57|
|Flues (number - dia) (in / mm)||40 - 5.5" / 140||45 - 5.5" / 140||45 - 5.5" / 140|
|Flue/Tube length (ft / m)||19 / 5.79||20.50 / 6.25||20.50 / 6.25|
|Firebox Area (sq ft / m2)||338 / 31.41||373 / 34.67||438 / 40.69|
|Grate Area (sq ft / m2)||66.50 / 6.18||76.30 / 7.09||76.20 / 7.08|
|Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4108 / 381.78||4666 / 433.64||4727 / 439.31|
|Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2)||850 / 79||1085 / 100.84||1085 / 100.84|
|Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2)||4958 / 460.78||5751 / 534.48||5812 / 540.15|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||191.87||218.24||221.09|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||11,970||15,260||15,240|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||14,005||18,159||18,136|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||71,183||88,774||104,244|