Santa Fe 2-8-2 "Mikado" Type Locomotives

Introduction

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, often referred to as the "Santa Fe", was one of the largest railroads in the United States. The company began 1859 and was named in part for the capital of New Mexico but its main line never reached there as the terrain made it too difficult to lay the necessary tracks. Santa Fe was ultimately served by a branch line from Lamy, NM.

The main line ran from Chicago, IL through Atchison, KS, Topeka, KS, Wichita, KS, Los Vegas, NV, Albuquerque, NM and on to Los Angeles, CA with connections to San Francisco, CA and San Diego, CA. It had other main lines which served several major cities including Denver, CO, Salt Lake City, UT, Ogden, UT, Kansas City, MO, St. Louis, MO, Dallas, TX, Ft. Worth, TX, El Paso, TX, Houston, TX, Galveston, TX and Guaymas, Mexico.

By 1945, AT&SF's total track length was 13,115 miles, 59,565,100 tons of freight was carried and its ridership was 11,264,000 passengers. The railway owned 1,759 locomotives, 1.436 passenger cars and 81,974 freight cars.

The first "Mikado" type locomotives on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway came from the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1902 and 1903. They were assigned road numbers 885 through 899. These 2-8-2s were Vauclain compounds with a wide firebox, which extended over the rear wheels. They were converted to simple locomotives in 1908 and saw service for the next four decades. In 1913, the next group of "Mikados" was purchased from Baldwin. This group was assigned road numbers 3100 through 3128. They had the same basic design as the converted locomotives of 1908, which included 57" diameter drivers, 25" x 32" cylinders, a 170 psi boiler pressure and a tractive effort of 50,700 pounds.

More 2-8-2s arrived in 1916, when Baldwin delivered a group of thirty, which were given road numbers 3129 through 3158. These locomotives had 57" diameter drivers, 25" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 56,650 pounds of tractive effort.

Between 1917 and 1920, the AT&SF received a total of 128 more "Mikados". The locomotives of this group were assigned road numbers 3160 through 3287 and were about 20 tons heavier than the earlier ones. They had 63" diameter drivers, 27" x 32" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 62, 950 pounds of tractive effort. The last group of new 2-8-2s to be added to the roster was a group of 101 built by Baldwin between 1921 and 1926. This group, road numbers 4000 through 4100 had the same specifications as the 3160-3287 locomotives.

There were five other "Mikados" on the roster. They were two AT&SF shop-built and three second-hand locomotives bought from the PRR. The San Bernardino shops took apart two 2-8-8-2s (numbers 1798 and 1799) and used the rear engines to build two 2-8-2s. These two locomotive were completed in 1924 and carried the same road numbers as the 2-8-8-2s. The three from the PRR came in 1945 and were ex PRR numbers 4031 built by Baldwin in 1917, number 4185 built by the PRR in 1917 and number 7342 built by Baldwin in 1917.

There are two surviving AT&SF 2-8-2 "Mikado" type locomotives. These two locomotives (numbers 3167 and 4076) were lost in a flood in 1952 and are now sunk in the Kaw River in Topeka, KS.

Roster by Richard Duley

ClassQty.Road NumbersFrom Other RRYear AcquiredYear BuiltBuilderNotes
885 15885-8991902-1903Baldwin1
3100 293100-31281913Baldwin2
882 3882-884PRR19451916-1917Baldwin & PRR3
3129 303129-31581916Baldwin4
3160 123160-32711917Baldwin5
3160 553172-32261918Baldwin5
3160 313227-32571919Baldwin5
3160 303258-32871920Baldwin5
1798 21798-17991924AT&SF6
40001014000-41001921-1926Baldwin7
Notes
  1. Numbers 885-899 scrapped between 1948 and 1954.
  2. Numbers 3100-3128 scrapped between 1948 and 1954.
  3. Numbers 882, 883 and 884 bought from the PRR in 1945. Ex PRR number 4031 built by Baldwin in 1917, Ex PRR number 4185 built by the PRR in 1917 and Ex PRR number 7342 built by Baldwin in 1917. Numbers 882, 883 and 884 scrapped by 1947.
  4. Numbers 3129-3158 scrapped between 1948 and 1954.
  5. Numbers 3160-3287 scrapped between 1950 and 1955.
  6. Numbers 1798 and 1799 built by the AT&SF from two AT&SF 2-8-8-2s, which had the same numbers. Numbers 1798 and 1799 scrapped in 1951-1952.
  7. Numbers 4000-4100 scrapped between 1950 and 1954.

Class Details by Steve Llanso

Class 3100 (Locobase 5442)

Data from AT&SF 7 -1920 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive collection. Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from http://atsf.railfan.net/atsfstea.html (also visited 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema. Also data from table in May 1916 issue of Railway Mechanical Engineer (RME). Works numbers were 39767-39768, 39803-39807, 39846-39856, 39888-39898 in May 1913.

Among the first of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Mikados, these were free-steamers by the looks of the numbers. In terms of weight, the Santa Fe engines were about at the median for US 2-8-2s of the pre-USRA era. Part of the firebox heating surface included four arch tubes comprising 25.4 sq ft.

Virtually all of the class lasted until the 1950s with the first to be scrapped (3114) going in July 1949 and 3116 broken up in December 1949. 3102 and 3123 were the last to go in June 1954.

Class 3129 (Locobase 5498)

Data from http://www.railroadingonline.com/railroads/atsf/drawings.(11 April 2003).

Data also from AT&SF 7 -1920 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive collection. Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from http://atsf.railfan.net/atsfstea.html (also visited 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema. Works numbers were 43064, 43091-43095 in March 1916; 43138-43139, 43154-43155, 43186-43189, 43263-43266 in April; 43292-43299, 43352-43353, 43397-43398 in May.

Similar to the 3100 class that immediately preceded them, these 30 Mikes were delivered with 57" drivers. The 200-psi boiler increased pulling power. Like the 3100s, these engines saw out steam, retiring in 1948-1954.

Class 3160 (Locobase 5499)

Data from http://www.railroadingonline.com/railroads/atsf/drawings.(11 April 2003). All of Drawing Room Specification Book Number 61 of the DeGolyer Library's Baldwin collection is devoted to Santa Fe locomotive orders in the late 19teens and 1920s. The 3160 class specs run from page 31 to 224 and cover seven batches. See also "Three Types of Locomotives for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway System," Railway & Locomotive Engineering, (December 1919), pp. 363-365.

Works numbers were

1917

October 46676, 46728, 46818-46819; November 46961-46965; December 47281, 47389, 47488

1918

January 47571, 47689-47691, 47743; February 47794, 47863, 47915-47917, 47964; March 48024-48025, 48077, 48146-48147; April 48263-48266, 48349-48350; May 48670-48673, 48730; June 48896-48898, 48948, 49082-49083; July 49163-49164, 49292-49294, 49389-49391; August 49470-49471, 49540, 49619; September 49923; October 50128, 50206, 50209; November 50549; December 50886-50889, 50990

1919

January 51028=51029, 51078, 51116-51117, 51150-51151; February 51231, 51252-51253, 51303-51304, 51380-51382, 51437-51439; March 51476, 51511-51513, 51554, 51575, 51580-51583, 51626; April 51659

1920

May 53272; June 53299-53301, 53318-53319, 53330-53331, 53350-53351, 53364; July 53376-53380, 53398-53399, 53430-53434, 53461-53464; August 53504-53505, 53526

3160-3187 had Baker gear; 3188-3257 had Walschaerts. As the data shows, these Mikes were considerable larger than the 3129s that immediately preceded them. If, as Drury (1993) notes, the 3129s were akin to the USRA's light Mikados, then these were the Heavies. They came in two subclasses -- the last 30 apparently being strictly coal burners while the first 98 were a mixture of coal- and oil-burning engines.

No matter, the class was big in both senses and performed throughout the system until 1950-1956. Also, the Santa Fe was sufficiently pleased with the design to go back to Baldwin for 101 more after the USRA era ended; see Locobase 2.

Class 4000 (Locobase 15202)

Data from tables in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia. See also the Kansas Memory archive of Santa Fe diagrams at http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/221763/page/279, last accessed 18 May 2013 and DeGolyer, Vol 70, pp. 316+.

Works numbers were

1921

June 54860-54862; July 54894-54896, 54903-54908, 54915-54916; August 54937

1923

May 56510-56511, 56571; July 56697-56703, 56819-56823; August 56992-56994; September 57086-57087, 57115-57122; October 57242-57244, 57269-57271, 57318-57328

Looks to have been based on the USRA Mikado design, but according to Wes Barris --http://www.steamlocomotive.com/mikado/atsf.shtml, accessed 21 June 2006 -- these were repeats of the 1917 3160 class (Locobase 5499). And in fact the design had the same firebox and only minor tweaks to the heating surface, which increased the superheat percentage. All of this group were oil burners.

A few of the earlier engines had their fireboxes retrofitted with thermic syphons that added 70 sq ft (6.5 sq m) to their heating surface areas. These were 4028, 4037, 4038, 4056, 4059.

The last 40 of the class were produced with more superheater area and fewer small tubes; see Locobase 2.

Class 4060 (Locobase 2)

Data from tables in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia. See also the Kansas Memory archive of Santa Fe diagrams at http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/221763/page/279, last accessed 18 May 2013 and DeGolyer, Vol 70, pp. 316-490.

Works numbers were

1924

March 57695-57698; April 57735-57737, 57742-57754; June 57815-57819, 57850

1926

July 59317-59318, 59339, 59349-59356; August 59398-59401.

Following the delivery of the first 61 engines in this class (Locobase 15202), Baldwin began producing a slightly modified design that had two more superheater flues (and more elements) and eight fewer tubes. All had Elesco feed water heaters and 15" (381 mm) piston valves. A relatively short engine wheelbase combined with a relatively tall boiler gave the class a stocky look.

Twenty-five--4060-4069 and 4086-4100--were oil burners and had the tender weights and capacities shown. According to the Santa Fe diagrams, weight distribution differed considerably between those engines burning oil and those fueled with coal. Oil burners put 11,000 lb (4,990 kg) more on the drivers, but coal burners (16 tons/14.5 metric tons of bituminous) had so much more weight on the two non-powered axles (6,250 lb/2,835 kg on the leading truck, 13,050 lb/5,919 kg on the trailing trucks) that their loaded weight reached 344,800 lb (156,399 kg).

Class 885 (Locobase 8249)

Data from AT&SF 7 -1920 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive collection. Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from http://atsf.railfan.net/atsfstea.html (also visited 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema. Works numbers were 21247, 21278, 21284-21285, 21323-21324 in November 1902; 21368-21369, 21403, 21419 in December; 21440, 21450, 21490, 21539, 21552 in January 1903.

At the same time Baldwin constructed the first-ever 2-10-2s for any railroad (Locobase 463), the builder produced these very similar Vauclain 4-cylinder compound designs, but ones in which the high-pressure cylinders lay inside of the frame and the low-pressure cylinders outside.

Confusion sets in when one looks at the 1901 diagram, which shows this class as 900-914; obviously the 1902 renumbering must have taken care of that and made room for the class 900 Santa Fes. Locobase doesn't know which way the emulation flowed, but notes that these Mikes (which were early examples of that arrangement as well) had more tubes stuffed into the same boiler barrel and consequently more heating surface. In fact, other than the single Decapod shown in Locobase 5364, this class had the most tubes measuring 2 1/4" in outside diameter of any locomotive ever built.

Such a big engine couldn't be left a compound. Moreover, it needed superheat. So some time later the Santa Fe simpled and superheated this class; see Locobase 8250.

Class 885 - superheated (Locobase 8250)

Data from AT&SF 7 -1920 locomotive diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive collection. Information about how many, when, and by whom this class was supplied from http://atsf.railfan.net/atsfstea.html (also visited 6 Feb 2006), the Santa Fe All-Time Steam Roster maintained by Evan Werkema.

Locobase 8249 described the 885s in their saturated, compound-working original state. It wasn't too long before the Santa Fe was simplifying the layout and not too long after that they installed a superheater. It's odd that so packed a boiler would yield 230 small tubes to allow for 40 large ones, but the total loss in heating surface wasn't extreme.


Specifications by Steve Llanso
Class31003129316040004060885885 - superheated
Locobase ID5442 5498 5499 15202 2 8249 8250
RailroadSanta Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)Santa Fe (ATSF)
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte2-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-22-8-2
Road Numbers3100-31283129-31583160-32874000-40594060-4100885-899855-899
GaugeStdStdStdStdStdStdStd
BuilderBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBaldwinBurnham, Williams & CoSanta Fe
Year1913191619171921192419021919
Valve GearWalschaertBakerBaker or WalschaertWalschaertWalschaertStephensonBaker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase16'16'16.50'16.50'16.50'16'16'
Engine Wheelbase34.08'34.08'35.08'35.08'35'31.54'31.54'
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.51 0.51
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)66.02'69.39'79.15'78.19'79.10'59.46'62.28'
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)54300 lbs57800 lbs66500 lbs65400 lbs67300 lbs53560 lbs59400 lbs
Weight on Drivers218900 lbs226300 lbs259000 lbs240000 lbs260200 lbs199670 lbs213000 lbs
Engine Weight284100 lbs295000 lbs348400 lbs315300 lbs342000 lbs261720 lbs271730 lbs
Tender Light Weight170900 lbs221000 lbs277200 lbs298500 lbs298500 lbs136000 lbs165800 lbs
Total Engine and Tender Weight455000 lbs516000 lbs625600 lbs613800 lbs640500 lbs397720 lbs437530 lbs
Tender Water Capacity8500 gals10000 gals15000 gals15000 gals15000 gals7000 gals8500 gals
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)12 tons3300 gals gals5000 gals5000 gals11 tons13.5 tons
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run91 lb/yard94 lb/yard108 lb/yard100 lb/yard108 lb/yard83 lb/yard89 lb/yard
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter57"58"63"63"63"57"57"
Boiler Pressure170 psi200 psi200 psi190 psi200 psi225 psi200 psi
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)25" x 32" (2)25" x 32" (2)27" x 32" (2)27" x 32" (2)27" x 32" (2)18" x 32" (2)25" x 32" (2)
Low Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke)30" x 32" (2)
Tractive Effort50702 lbs58621 lbs62949 lbs59801 lbs62949 lbs51158 lbs59649 lbs
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.32 3.86 4.11 4.01 4.13 3.90 3.57
Heating Ability
Firebox Area262 sq. ft237 sq. ft278 sq. ft278 sq. ft278 sq. ft210 sq. ft210 sq. ft
Grate Area58.50 sq. ft58.50 sq. ft66.80 sq. ft66.80 sq. ft66.80 sq. ft58.50 sq. ft58.50 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface4111 sq. ft4086 sq. ft4516 sq. ft4626 sq. ft4553 sq. ft5366 sq. ft3862 sq. ft
Superheating Surface880 sq. ft880 sq. ft1084 sq. ft1086 sq. ft1143 sq. ft850 sq. ft
Combined Heating Surface4991 sq. ft4966 sq. ft5600 sq. ft5712 sq. ft5696 sq. ft5366 sq. ft4712 sq. ft
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume226.12224.75212.96218.15214.71569.35212.43
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation9945117001336012692133601316311700
Same as above plus superheater percentage11735138061589815103160321316313806
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area52557559326616462856667204725049560
Power L11185114027155101485516073523813128
Power MT477.42546.61528.09545.83544.73231.34543.52

Photos

Reference

Credits

Introduction and roster provided by Richard Duley. Class details and specifications provided by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media.