4-8-2 "Mountain" Type Locomotives

A Canadian National Mountain

On the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, as the number of cars grew on its passenger trains, it became necessary to doublehead "Pacifics" to get these longer trains over the Allegheny Mountains. In 1910, the C&O turned to the American Locomotive Company for a more powerful locomotive.

The engineers at ALCO made a study of the road conditions and other requirements. From this study they recommended a locomotive with eight drivers, like the "Mikado", for traction to which they would add a four-wheel lead truck, like the "Pacific", for speed and riding stability. The result was a new wheel arrangement, the 4-8-2.

The C&O agreed and in 1911, became the first North American railroad to take delivery of a locomotive with the 4-8-2 wheel arrangement. This locomotive was numbered 316 but was later renumbered 540. The C&O named this new type of locomotive "Mountain" because it was developed to haul passenger trains over the Allegheny Mountains.

The "Mountain" 4-8-2 was a fast dual-service locomotive that was bought by many railroads in need of more motive power for the ever increasing weight of passenger trains and to compete for fast freight.

In North America 41 railroads bought or built 2,204 "Mountain" Locomotives. The New York Central and the Pennsylvania Railroad used a combined total of 901 or 41% of the total. The first one built was C&O number 316, in 1911, and the last one built was B&O number 5594, in 1948.

The 4-8-2 was the locomotive that demonstrated the value of combining eight coupled high drivers with the speed potential of the leading four wheel truck. Had the engineers, in 1911, recognized the serious limitation of the two trailing wheels and had allowed more weight by adding a trailing four wheel truck then the ultimate dual-service locomotive would have been developed 16 years earlier than the 1927 introduction of the "Northern".

Information for this introduction to Mountains provided by Richard Duley.

Builders of 4-8-2 "Mountain" Type Locomotives (by Richard Duley)

Railroad Line Quantity, Builder
Alaska Railroad 2 Baldwin
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 51 Baldwin
Baltimore & Ohio 2 Baldwin 42 B&O
Bangor & Aroostook 10 ALCO
Boston & Maine 18 Baldwin
Canadian National Railway 42 CLC 32 MLW
Canadan Pacific Railway 2 CPR
Central Vermont 4 ALCO
Central of Georgia 27 ALCO 5 Baldwin
Chesapeake & Ohio 8 ALCO 2 Baldwin
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 13 BLW 8 Lima
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 62 ALCO
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 45 ALCO
Denver & Rio Grande Western 30 ALCO 10 Baldwin
Florida East Coast 90 ALCO
Grand Trunk Western 5 Baldwin
Great Northern 28 Baldwin 15 LIMA
Illinois Central 35 ALCO 25 LIMA 76 IC
Lehigh & Hudson River 3 Baldwin
Lehigh Valley 6 ALCO
Louisville & Nashville 22 Baldwin
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Sainte Marie 18 ALCO 3 Soo
Missouri Pacific 33 ALCO
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 5 ALCO 8 Baldwin
New Orleans Great Northern 3 ALCO
New York Central 435 ALCO 165 Lima
New York, New Haven & Hartford 70 ALCO
New York, Ontario & Western 20 ALCO
Norfolk & Western 10 ALCO 12 Baldwin 26 N&W
Pennsylvania 225 Baldwin 50 LIMA 26 PRR
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac 4 ALCO
Rutland 4 ALCO
St. Louis - San Francisco 30 Baldwin 34 SLSF
Seaboard Air Line 25 ALCO 36 Baldwin
Southern Pacific 34 ALCO 49 SP
Southern 58 Baldwin
Tennessee Central 4 ALCO
Texas & Pacific 5 ALCO 5 Baldwin
Union Pacific 60 ALCO
Wabash 25 Baldwin
Western Pacific 10 ex FEC
Western Railway of Alabama 2 ALCO


Number of 4-8-2 "Mountain" Type Locomotives Built by Year (by Richard Duley)

Year
Railroad 1911 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Total
AGS 2 2
Alaska 1 1 2
AT&SF 2 10 11 14 8 6 51
AB&C none
ACL nonew
B&O 1 1 2 3 10 7 7 3 7 3 44
BAR 4 3 2 1 10
B&M 5 5 3 5 18
CN 16 12 9 9 8 20 74
CPR 2 2
CentVermont 4 4
CentralofGA 3 7 2 5 5 5 5 32
C&O 2 1 5 2 10
CB&Q 8 13 21
CRI&P 2 10 30 5 10 5 62
CNO&TP 5 5
CCC&StL 50 50
DL&W 5 5 20 15 45
D&RGW 10 20 10 40
FEC 15 19 23 33 90
GTW 5 5
GN 15 28 43
IC 15 25 20 1 20 11 9 15 10 10 136
L&HR 3 3
LV 3 3 6
L&N 16 6 22
MStP&SSM 10 8 3 21
MoPac 7 7 5 4 5 5 33
NC&StL 5 2 2 2 2 13
NdeM nonew
NOGN 3 3
NYC 30 16 139 1 99 125 25 40 10 27 34 4 550
NYNH&H 10 30 9 11 10 70
NYO&W 4 6 10 20
N&W 8 8 10 12 10 48
PRR 1 200 100 301
RF&P 2 2 4
Rutland 4 4
SL-SF 15 5 10 6 5 6 6 6 5 64
SLSW nonew
SAL 10 5 10 20 16 10 71
SP 14 20 9 14 5 5 11 5 83
Southern 23 25 48
TennCentral 4 4
T&P 5 5 10
UP 40 15 5 60
Wabash 25 25
WP nonew
WRwyofAla 2 2
Totals: 2 1 9 27 30 59 154 61 70 19 76 211 108 130 474 42 28 214 182 1 7 6 11 20 20 55 36 46 54 34 8 7 7 3 2211

USA and Canadian Railroads that used 4-8-2 "Mountain" Type Locomotives

Mexican, Central American, and Caribbean Railroads that used 4-8-2 "Mountain" Type Locomotives

Surviving Examples of 4-8-2 "Mountain" Type Locomotives

No. Class F.M. Whyte Gauge Railroad Line Location Status Builder Information Notes
1527 1500 4-8-2 4'-8½" SLSF Langan Park, Mobile, AL display Baldwin #59201, 1926
2500 2500 4-8-2 4'-8½" IC Age of Steam Memorial, Fairview Park, Centralia, IL display IC, 1937 Built from IC 2953 2-10-2 boiler (Lima)
3001 (909) L-3a 4-8-2 4'-8½" NYC (T&P) National NYC Railroad Museum, Elkhart, IN display ALCO (Schenectady) #69338, 1940 Long term restoration candidate
3042 L-3b 4-8-2 4'-8½" NYC National NYC Railroad Museum, Elkhart, IN unknown ALCO (Schenectady), 1940 Tender only, on display behind 3001. Used as auxiliary water tender for American Freedom Train and Chessie Steam Special then damaged in roundhouse fire.
2523 P-2 4-8-2 4'-8½" GN Kandiyohi County Historic Park, Willmar, MN display Baldwin #57343, 1923
1501 1500 4-8-2 4'-8½" SLSF Schuman Park, Rolla, MO display Baldwin #56235, 1923
2933 L-2d 4-8-2 4'-8½" NYC Museum of Transportation, St. Louis, MO cosmetic restoration ALCO (Schenectady) #68126, 1929 Under restoration since 2004
1522 1500 4-8-2 4'-8½" SLSF Museum of Transportation, St. Louis, MO display serviceable Baldwin #59134, 1926 retired in 2002
1529 1500 4-8-2 4'-8½" SLSF Frisco Park, Amory, MS display Baldwin #59203, 05/1926
2542 2500 4-8-2 4'-8½" IC McComb Railroad Museum, McComb, MS display Paducah, 1951 moved from Edgewood Park, 6/21/2000
1519 1500 4-8-2 4'-8½" SLSF Railroad Museum of NW OK, Enid, OK display Baldwin #58607, 1925
1526 1500 4-8-2 4'-8½" SLSF Museum of the Great Plains, Lawton, OK display Baldwin #59200, 1926
6039 U-1-c 4-8-2 4'-8½" GTW Steamtown National Historic Site, Scranton, PA display Baldwin #58463, 1925
6755 M1b 4-8-2 4'-8½" PRR Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, Strasburg, PA display PRR (Altoona) #4225, 1930
2507 P-2 4-8-2 4'-8½" SP&S (GN) Wishram Amtrak Station, Wishram, WA display painted in 2002, from Port of Pasco, WA
6015 U-1-a 4-8-2 4'-8½" CNR CNR Depot, Jasper, AB display CLC #1711, 1923
6060 U-1-f 4-8-2 4'-8½" CNR (MLW) Rocky Mountain Railway Society, Stettler, AB out of service Montreal Locomotive Works #72757, 1944
6043 U-1-d 4-8-2 4'-8½" CNR Assiniboine Park, Winnipeg, MB display CLC #1854, 1929
6077 U-1-f 4-8-2 4'-8½" CNR Prescott Park (CN stn), Capreol, ON display Montreal Locomotive Works #72774, 1944
6069 U-1-f 4-8-2 4'-8½" CNR Sarnia Centennial Park, Sarnia, ON display Montreal Locomotive Works #72766, 1944

Web Pages

Reference

  • Guide to North American Steam Locomotives by George H. Drury (Kalmbach Publishing Co.)
  • North American Steam Locomotives: The Mountains by Jack W. Farrell (Pacific Fast Mail)
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of North American Locomotives by Brian Hollingsworth (Smithmark Publishers)
  • B & O Power: Steam, Diesel and Electric Power of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1829 - 1964 by Lawrence W. Sagle (Alvin F. Staufer)
  • C & O Power: Steam and Diesel Locomotives of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, 1900 - 1965 by Philip Shuster, Eugene L. Huddleston and Alvin Staufer (Alvin F. Staufer)
  • Steam Power of the New York Central System: Vol 1, Modern Power, 1915 - 1955 by Alvin F. Staufer (Alvin F. Staufer)
  • Pennsy Power: Steam and Electric Locomotives of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1900 - 1957 by Alvin F. Staufer (Alvin F. Staufer)
  • Steam over Scranton: The Locomotives of Steamtown by Gordon Chappell (U. S. Department of the Interior - NPS)
  • New York Central Later Power by Alvin F. Staufer and Edward L. May (Alvin F. Staufer)
  • B & O Power 1829 - 1964 by Lawrence W. Sagle and Alvin F. Staufer (Alvin F. Staufer)
  • The American Steam Locomotive: Vol 1, The Evolution of the Steam Locomotive by F. M. Swengel (Midwest Rail Publications)
  • The Search for Steam by Joe G. Collias (Heimburger House Publishing Co.)
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