In 1929, another 20 "Confederations", Class U-2-c, came from the Montreal Locomotive Works and in 1936, another five, Class U-2-d, also from Montreal were added, making a total of 65.
Also in 1936, five very special semi-streamlined locomotives, Class U-4-a (road number 6400 through 6404) were built by the Montreal Locomotive Works. The design was the product of extensive research conducted by the National research Council of Canada in a study completed in 1934 with the purpose to improve efficiency of engines by reducing aerodynamic drag and enhance safe operation by improving visibility from the cab at lower speeds. 6400 is the only one of its class preserved.
Between 1940 and 1944 a total of 90 more 4-8-4s, in four batches, were added to the roster giving CNR a total of 160 "Confederations".
There are six surviving "Confederations"; number 6153 at the Canadian Railway Museum in Delson, QC, number 6167 near the CN station in Guelph, ON, numbers 6200 and 6400 at the National Museum of Science and Technology in Ottawa, ON, number 6213 at the CPR John Street Roundhouse in Toronto, ON and number 6218 at the Fort Erie Railroad Museum in Fort Erie, ON.
Another six 4-8-4s were bought in 1938 from the Lima Locomotive Works and designated Class U-4-b and assigned road numbers 6405 through 6410. These locomotives had 77" drivers, 24 x 30 cylinders, a boiler pressure of 275 psi, a tractive effort of 52,500 lbs and each weighed 382,700 pounds.
In 1942 and 1943, the GTW bought another 25 "Confederations" from ALCO. These locomotives were designated Class U-3-b and had 73" drivers, 26 x 30 cylinders, a boiler pressure of 250 psi, a tractive effort of 59,000 lbs and weighed 403,000 pounds. They were assigned road numbers 6312 through 6336.
On March 23, 1960, GTW locomotives numbers 6319 and 6322 had the distinction of hauling the last regularly scheduled main line steam powered passenger train in the United States. Number 6319 led the 15 cars of the first section of Train #21 from Detroit to Durand, MI while number 6322 led the 22 cars of the second section.
There are two surviving GTW "Confederations"; number 6323 at the Illinois Railway Museum in Union, IL and number 6325 at the Ohio Central Railroad in West Lafayette, OH.
Supposedly CN Lines Vol 16 No 3 clarifies this conundrum. I would like to see that article but I have not been able to find it on-line. I have been told that the words "Northern Type" can be found on brass plaques attached to both cylinder casings on all CNR 4-8-4 locomotives. Could the confusion around the name have arisen because CNR 6111 was named "Confederation" to commemorate Canada's founding as a nation in 1867? Why is there so much disagreement around this?
|CNR Class||Road Numbers||YR blt||Bldr||Drv||Cyl||BP||Weight||TE|
|U-2-a||6100 - 6104||1927||CLW||73"||25.5x30||250||385,590||57,000|
|U-2-a||6105 - 6114||1927||CLW||73"||25.5x30||250||396,390||57,000|
|U-2-a||6115 - 6119||1927||CLW||73"||25.5x30||250||385,590||57,000|
|U-2-b||6120 - 6139||1927||MLW||73"||25.5x30||250||381,900||57,000|
|U-2-c||6140 - 6159||1929||MLW||73"||25.5x30||250||383,000||57,000|
|U-2-d||6160 - 6164||1936||MLW||73"||25.5x30||250||390,000||57,000|
|U-2-e||6165 - 6179||1940||MLW||73"||25.5x30||250||402,700||57,000|
|U-2-f||6180 - 6189||1940||CLW||73"||25.5x30||250||389,330||57,000|
|U-2-g||6200 - 6234||1943||MLW||73"||25.5x30||250||399,600||57,000|
|U-2-h||6235 - 6264||1944||MLW||73"||25.5x30||250||400,300||57,000|
|U-4-a||6400 - 6404||1936||MLW||77"||24x30||275||379,800||52,000|
|GTW Class||Road Numbers||Year Built||Builder|
These locomotives were the first in a large series of 4-8-4s of very similar design that totalled more than 200 engines.
Firebox had water tubes that contributed 100 sq ft (9.3 sq m) to the direct heating surface; the boiler had an Elesco K29 feedwater heater. Of the 177 flues, 15 did not contain superheater elements. Firebox heating surface area included 22 sq ft (2 sq m) of arch tubes and 95 sq ft (8.8 sq m) of thermic syphons. Main frames were made of vanadium steel for the 6105, 6110, 6112, 6114-6129. The others--6104, 6106-6109, 6111, 6115, 6130-6139--had main frames made of nickel steel
U-2a (works #1800-1819) numbered from 6100 to 6119 and delivered from Canadian Loco Works in 1927.
U-2b (6120-6139), delivered from Montreal in 1927 (works #67351-67370), identical except for 233,400-lb weight on drivers and commensurate 4.10 factor of adhesion. Also the first ring of the boiler measured 80 7/8" in diameter.
6100 was named Confederation and that moniker was used in preference to "Northern" on all CNR 4-8-4s.
GTW had several batches of identical locomotives in the U-3 class; see Locobases 3171 and 255.
Firebox had thermic syphons and water tubes that contributed 100 sq ft (9.3 sq m) to the direct heating surface. The boiler had feedwater heater. These were follow-ons to the U-2a/2b with a different tube/flue ratio. All of the engines had Boxpok drivers and nickel-steel main frames.
Obviously, the CNR found the dimensions of this design to be a good fit as they added locomotives to the class for eleven years. All of the U-2s had the trailing axles that somewhat unusually carried wheels of considerably different sizes. The leading wheels were 34 1/4" in diameter, while the rear wheels measured 48". All the truck wheels rolled on SKF roller bearings.
MLW's works # for the 6140-6159 were 67769-67788 in 1929. Seven years later, the company added 5 more (works #68710-68714) built to the same specs, but weighing a bit more (237,600 lb on the drivers, 390,000 lb total). In 1940, MLW supplied works #69260-69274 as road numbers 6165-6179 and Canadian Locomotive Works added 10 more (works #1960-1969) as road numbers 6180-6189.
Firebox heating surface included 99 sq ft (9.3 sq m) of thermic syphons (three), boiler had type E superheater. It was a slight redesign of the earlier U-2 classes (Locobase 2951 ) that traded some tube heating surface for superheater area. Like the earlier classes, the trailing axles somewhat unusually carried wheels of considerably different sizes. The leading wheels were 34 1/4" (870 mm) in diameter, while the rear wheels measured 48"(1,219 mm).
Firebox had thermic syphons and arch tubes that contributed 100 sq ft (9.3 sq m) to the direct heating surface. These locomotives and their CNR U-2 cousins were relatively light 4-8-4s of relatively orthodox layout for the late 1920s. See Locobase 255 for the later U-3cs, which were quite different in their internal layout.
Like the U-2s, the trailing truck wheel diameters differed considerably. In the case of the U-3s, the leading carrying truck under the firebox measured 33" (838 mm) in diameter while the trailing wheels were 10" (254 mm) larger.
http://www.ohiocentralrr.com/shop/johnb.html (link no longer active).
Firebox had 95 sq ft (8.8 sq m) of thermic syphons. These locomotives and their CNR U-2 cousins were relatively light 4-8-4s. Like all CNR Northerns, the trailing axles somewhat unusually carried wheels of considerably different sizes. The leading wheels were 34 1/4" (870 mm) in diameter, while the rear wheels measured 48" (1,219 mm).
The U-3bs (works #69618-69642) had been preceded by a 1927 batch of U-3a, which is the subject of a separate entry (Locobase 3171). As they were very nearly the same size and tractive power, it's instructive to examine the impact of the superpower revolution on how that power was generated. The tube-flue ratio changes profoundly from 200+ small-diameter tubes and 50 flues of more than twice the cross-sectional area to a reversed layout of tubes and flues that are nearer the same size. The firebox heating surface actually declined, but the superheating percentage climbed seven points to more than 30% of the combined heating surface.
www.ohiocentralrr.com/shop/johnb.html by John B. Corns details the refurbishment of this locomotive for operations on the Ohio Central beginning in September 2001. The article sketches how well-suited for its service was this design. As passenger engines, they wheeled 16-car trains across the relatively flat Michigan rail at impressive speeds. One U-3b reportedly hit 106.5 mph pulling 12 cars in 1956. Corns notes that the class was "equally at ease heading 80-car manifests across GTW's Chicago Division ..."
Among the features in this design were roller bearings on all but the driving axles, Boxpok drivers, Nicholson thermic syphons, and Elesco exhaust steam injectors ("the 'poor man's feedwater heaters'").
Restoration to tourist operation by owner Jerry Jacobson is estimated to have cost him over 3/4 of a million dollars.
Said to be a streamlined variant of the U-2 series; see in particular the detailed sketch of all the different tweaks used to accomplish streamlining on page 74 of the Canadian Rail account. Works numbers were 68715-68719. Differences are more than skin-deep, however, and include a smaller boiler and grate, larger drivers, lower adhesive weight, and lower tractive effort. The firebox included thermic syphons, the engines had Boxpok drivers and roller bearings on all of the engine and tender trucks.
Seven more went to the Grand Trunk Western as #6405-6411; see Locobase 243. (For some reason, the GTWs had one less small tube.)
Very slight differences between these engines and the CNR U-4s numbered 6400-6404 (Locobase 242). Note the light average axle loading and the weight per foot of driving wheelbase. Direct heating surface area included a combustion chamber and thermic syphons. Piston valves measured a relatively small 12" (306 mm) in diameter.
|Specifications by Steve Llanso|
|Railroad||Canadian National (CNR)||Canadian National (CNR)||Canadian National (CNR)||Grand Trunk Western (CNR)||Grand Trunk Western (CNR)||Canadian National (CNR)||Grand Trunk Western (CNR)|
|Builder||Several||several||Montreal LW||Alco||Alco||Montreal LW||Lima|
|Locomotive Length and Weight|
|Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase||0.44||0.44||0.44||0.44||0.44||0.45||0.45|
|Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender)||82.40'||82.23'||82.40'||82.40'||82.40'||82.69'||82.71'|
|Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle)|
|Weight on Drivers||237330 lbs||232200 lbs||246100 lbs||237700 lbs||245000 lbs||236000 lbs||237900 lbs|
|Engine Weight||396390 lbs||383000 lbs||400300 lbs||399000 lbs||403000 lbs||378000 lbs||382700 lbs|
|Tender Light Weight||268500 lbs||277900 lbs||278000 lbs||267500 lbs||270500 lbs||280280 lbs||278500 lbs|
|Total Engine and Tender Weight||664890 lbs||660900 lbs||678300 lbs||666500 lbs||673500 lbs||658280 lbs||661200 lbs|
|Tender Water Capacity||13800 gals||13000 gals||13920 gals||13550 gals||14300 gals||11700 gals||14300 gals|
|Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal)||20 tons||20 tons||18 tons||20 tons||16 tons||18 tons||20 tons|
|Minimum weight of rail (calculated) on which locomotive could run||99 lb/yard||97 lb/yard||103 lb/yard||99 lb/yard||102 lb/yard||98 lb/yard||99 lb/yard|
|Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort|
|Boiler Pressure||250 psi||250 psi||250 psi||250 psi||250 psi||275 psi||275 psi|
|Cylinders (dia x stroke)||25.5" x 30"||25.5" x 30"||25.5" x 30"||26.25" x 30"||26" x 30"||24" x 30"||24" x 30"|
|Tractive Effort||56786 lbs||56786 lbs||56786 lbs||60175 lbs||59034 lbs||52457 lbs||52457 lbs|
|Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort)||4.18||4.09||4.33||3.95||4.15||4.50||4.54|
|Firebox Area||432 sq. ft||415 sq. ft||414 sq. ft||436 sq. ft||413 sq. ft||390 sq. ft||394 sq. ft|
|Grate Area||84.40 sq. ft||84.40 sq. ft||84.30 sq. ft||84.30 sq. ft||84.30 sq. ft||73.60 sq. ft||73.60 sq. ft|
|Evaporative Heating Surface||4244 sq. ft||4220 sq. ft||4080 sq. ft||4607 sq. ft||4402 sq. ft||3861 sq. ft||3852 sq. ft|
|Superheating Surface||1840 sq. ft||1760 sq. ft||1835 sq. ft||1388 sq. ft||1955 sq. ft||1530 sq. ft||1530 sq. ft|
|Combined Heating Surface||6084 sq. ft||5980 sq. ft||5915 sq. ft||5995 sq. ft||6357 sq. ft||5391 sq. ft||5382 sq. ft|
|Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume||239.33||237.98||230.08||245.17||238.78||245.80||245.23|
|Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)|
|Robert LeMassena's Power Computation||21100||21100||21075||21075||21075||20240||20240|
|Same as above plus superheater percentage||27430||27219||27608||25922||27608||25907||25907|
|Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area||140400||133838||135585||134070||135258||137280||138688|