Delaware, Lackawanna &Western 4-8-4 "Northern" Locomotives of the USA

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western designed and purchased five 4-8-4s (road numbers 1501 through 1505) to increase its motive power for the "Lackawanna Limited" and other passenger trains. These locomotives were assigned Class Q-1 and were built by the American Locomotive Company after the Northern Pacific took delivery of the first 4-8-4s in 1927. DL&W wanted its new locomotives to have a distinction of their own and decided to call them "Poconos", for the mountains that the railroad crossed. Designed with passenger service in mind, these locomotives had 73" drivers and a tractive effort of 64,500 pounds.

Starting in 1929, DL&W began to receive thirty new "Poconos" (road numbers 1601 through 1620 Class Q-2 and 1621 through 1630 Class Q-3) from ALCO. These were intended for freight service and had 70" drivers and a tractive force of 71,600 pounds.

In 1934, it purchased 20 more Class Q-4 (road numbers 1631 through 1650) ALCO "super power" 4-8-4s, this time intended for dual service. They were designed to have 74" drivers, a tractive effort of 72,000 pounds and roller bearings on all axles.

There are no survivors


Roster by Richard Duley

ClassRoad NumbersYear BuiltBuilder
Q-11501-15051927ALCO
Q-21601-16201929ALCO
Q-31621-16301932ALCO
Q-41631-16501934ALCO

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class Q1 (Locobase 259)

Data from DL&W7 - 1933 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also American Locomotive Company Builder's Card for Order No. B-1705. Robert A LeMassena, "The USRA Heavy 4-8-2 and its Illustrious Ascendants", Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Newsletter (Vol 23, #2 - Spring 2003). (Thanks to Chris Hohl for his 4 November 2016 email that included the Alco-Brooks builder's card supplying the original tender specs.) Works numbers were 67526-67530 in 1927.

In his study of the USRA Heavy Mountain (see Locobase 232) and the locomotives it inspired, LeMassena notes that the DL&W had procured five 4-8-2s based on the USRA design but equipped with larger fireboxes ( Locobase 5731). Soon the railroad came back for still bigger descendants of the basic design that needed another axle under the firebox. Thus were erected the first DL&W 4-8-4s. Firebox heating surface area included 28 sq ft (2.6 sq m) in arch tubes and 88 sq ft (8.18 sq m) more in thermic syphons. Piston valves measured a relatively modest 12" (305 mm) in diameter in cast-steel cylinders. The quintet's 77" (1,956 mm) driver diameter was unequalled in any of the other DL&W 4-8-4s

These were delivered with tenders holding 14 ton of coal and weighed 216,000 lb (97,976 kg). Mechanical stoker was the Standard Type B.

Called Poconos, this group of five engines led the way for 50 more; see Locobases 260,

9246, and 924.

Unlike every other US 4-8-4 design, the D&LW Qs (see also 260) used the smaller flues for its Type A superheater tubes. All others using Type As had 5 1/2" flues.


Class Q2 (Locobase 260)

Data from DL&W 3 - 1938 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. Alco works numbers ran in a batch: 67799-67818.

The next step in the DL&W's Pocono parade belonged to this dual-traffic design. Simliar in most respects to the Brooks-built Q1 (Locobase 259), the new class had smaller drivers and were expected to haul fast freights as well as passenger trains. Firebox had 110.5 sq ft (10.25 sq m) of thermic syphons and 27.5 sq ft (2.55 sq m) of arch tubes contributing to the heating surface.

NB: Unlike every other US 4-8-4 design, the D&LW Qs (see also 259) used the smaller flues for its Type A superheater tubes. All others using Type As had 5 1/2" flues.


Class Q3/Q3a (Locobase 9246)

Data from DL&W 3 - 1938 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also Robert A LeMassena, "The USRA HEAVY 4-8-2 and its Illustrious Ascendants", Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Newsletter (Vol 23, #2 - Spring 2003). Works numbers were 68623-68632 in June 1932.

This class represented a big boiler redesign compared to the Q2s that had preceded it only a few years earlier (see Locobase 260). Superpower dimensions had arrived: the number of firetubes shrank dramatically while scores of new, smaller-diameter flues for the Type E superheated resulted in an 69% increase in supeheater area (or more than 900 sq ft). The firebox saw little change and had 110 sq ft of thermic syphons and 27 sq ft of arch tubes contributing to the heating surface. They introduced the Worthington 5-S feed water heater with a 9,000 US gallon (34,065 litres)/hour capacity. The DL&W estimated resulting quantities as 5-8% in coal and 3-5% in water.

Also, LeMassena notes, the Q3s pioneered roller bearings on the Lackawanna with the first 8 (Q3) sporting roller bearings on the lead trucks and the last two (Q3a) fitted with roller bearings on all engine axles.


Class Q4 (Locobase 9247)

Data from DL&W 3 - 1938 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Raildata collection. See also Robert A LeMassena, "The USRA HEAVY 4-8-2 and its Illustrious Ascendants", Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Newsletter (Vol 23, #2 - Spring 2003). Works numbers were 68661-68680 in October-December 1934.

The last variant of the DL&W's sizable 4-8-4 stud, the Q4 also sported a superpower boiler on a slightly smaller scale than the Q3 (Locobase 9246), but pressed to a higher degree. The firebox, too, was a bit smaller with 95 sq ft (8.82 sq m) of thermic syphons and 27 sq ft (2.5 sq m) of arch tubes contributing to the heating surface. Driver diameter increased by 4" and the Q4s also traveled on roller bearings on all engine axles.

Worthington's 5-SA feed water heater offered a 9,000 US gallon (34,065 litres)/hour capacity. As in the Q-3s (which had the 5-S type), DL&W estimated resulting quantities as 5-8% in coal and 3-5% in water.

LeMassena says: "Although intended for fast freight trains between Buffalo and Binghamton, New York, these locomotives handled perishables eastward to Hoboken, New Jersey, returning westward on mainline passenger trains."

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
ClassQ1Q2Q3/Q3aQ4
Locobase ID259 260 9246 9247
RailroadDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &WesternDelaware, Lackawanna &Western
CountryUSAUSAUSAUSA
Whyte4-8-44-8-44-8-44-8-4
Number in Class5201020
Road Numbers1501-15051600-16201621-16301631-1650
GaugeStdStdStdStd
Number Built5201020
BuilderAlco-BrooksAlco-SchenectadyAlco-SchenectadyAlco-Schenectady
Year1927192919321934
Valve GearWalschaertWalschaertWalschaertWalschaert
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft)20191919.50
Engine Wheelbase (ft)46.6745.5045.5046.08
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft)82.2184.6284.6286.54
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs)
Weight on Drivers (lbs)269,000262,000270,000274,000
Engine Weight (lbs)421,000418,000432,000447,000
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs)221,500289,000287,200313,000
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs)642,500707,000719,200760,000
Tender Water Capacity (gals)12,00015,00015,00016,000
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons)16222226
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd)112109113114
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in)77707074
Boiler Pressure (psi)250230235250
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in)27" x 32"28" x 32"28" x 32"28" x 32"
Tractive Effort (lbs)64,37970,06771,59072,043
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.18 3.74 3.77 3.80
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft)493515513493
Grate Area (sq ft)88.2088.2088.2088.20
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft)5193513654455488
Superheating Surface (sq ft)1324132422432180
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft)6517646076887668
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume244.89225.21238.76240.64
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena's Power Computation22,05020,28620,72722,050
Same as above plus superheater percentage26,46024,34326,73828,224
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area147,900142,140155,516157,760
Power L129,61523,09333,89837,279
Power MT970.85777.271107.141199.80

Photos

Reference