The New York Central system included several railroads that operated under
their own identity. Among these roads were the Boston & Albany Railroad, the
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis Railroad, the Lake Shore & Michigan
Southern Railroad, the Michigan Central Railroad, which also controlled the
Canadian Southern Railway, the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad
and the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad. These railroad are mentioned
here because these were the roads that used "Pacific" type locomotives.
See below for the NYC&HR locomotives and elsewhere for the other lines.

The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad had a total of 478 "Pacific" type locomotives, which were acquired between 1908 and January 1927. These locomotives were built in five major Classes with twenty-five different sub classes. The American Locomotive Company built 418 of the locomotives, the Baldwin Locomotive Works built fifty and the NYC built ten.

Between 1908 and 1913 the NYC&HR took delivery of 377 "Pacific" type locomotives of four major classes. Class K-2 which had 79" diameter drivers, 22" x 28" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 29,100 pounds of tractive effort. Class K-3 which had 79" diameter drivers, 23 1/2 " x 28" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 30,900 pounds of tractive effort. Class K-10 which had 69" diameter drivers, 24" x 28" cylinders, a 200 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 39,735 pounds of tractive effort. Class K-11 which had 69" diameter drivers, 26" x 26" cylinders, a 180 psi boiler pressure and they exerted 38,970 pounds of tractive effort.

In 1908, the NYC&HR took delivery of sixty "Pacific" type locomotives, which were all built by the American Locomotive Company. Forty of these locomotives were designated as Class K-2e and assigned road numbers 3555 through 3594. Ten were designated as Class K-2f and assigned road numbers 3450 through 3459. Five were designated as Class K-2g and assigned road numbers 3460 through 3464 and another five were designated as Class K-2h and assigned road numbers 3465 through 3469.

In 1910, another forty-five "Pacific" type locomotives were added to the roster, which were all built by ALCO. Twenty-four of these locomotives were designated as Class K-2i and assigned road numbers 3470 through 3493. A single locomotive designated as Class K-2j was assigned road number 3494. Twelve were designated as Class K-2k and assigned road numbers 3438 through 3449. There were eight designated as Class K-10a, which were assigned road numbers 3000 through 3003 and road numbers 3026 through 3029.

In 1911, the NYC&HR received a total of 108 "Pacifics". Twenty came from ALCO and were designated Class K-3a and given road numbers 3418 through 3437. Forty-two locomotives built by ALCO were designated as Class K-10a and assigned road numbers 3004 through 3025 and 3030 through 3049. Ten ALCO-built 4-6-2s were designated as Class K-11a and given road numbers 3090 through 3099. Ten more ALCO-built "Pacifics" were designated as Class K-11b and assigned road numbers 3080 through 3089. There were also twenty-six more 4-6-2s delivered in 1911, which were built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. They were designated as Class K-11c and assigned road numbers 3050 through 3071 and 3073 through 3076.

In 1912, a total of 114 "Pacific" type locomotives were put on the NYC&HR roster. Twenty, which were built by Baldwin were designated as Class K-3c and given road numbers 3398 through 3417. Twenty ALCO-built were designated as Class K-3d and assigned road numbers 3378 through 3397. Another twenty ALCO-built 4-6-2s were designated as Class K-11b and given road numbers 3100 through 3119. Baldwin delivered four locomotives, which were designated as Class K-11c and they were given road numbers 3072, 3077, 3078 and 3079. ALCO delivered twenty locomotives, which were designated as Class K-11d and these locomotives carried road numbers 3120 through 3139. Another thirty ALCO-built "Pacific" were designated as Class K-11e and assigned road numbers 3140 through 3169.

In 1913, fifty ALCO-built locomotives came to the NYC&HR. Twenty were designated as Class K-3g with road numbers 3358 through 3377. Thirty were designated as Class K-11f with road numbers 3170 through 3199.

In 1914, the New York Central Railroad was formed with merger of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern along with the inclusion of the Ohio Central Lines.

There were another ninety-one "Pacifics" delivered to the NYC after 1914. Thirty-five ALCO-built 4-6-2s delivered in 1918. This group was designated as Class K-3n and assigned road numbers 3323 through 3357. Twenty-six more locomotives were delivered in 1920. They were designated as Class K-3p and carried road numbers 3297 through 3322. ALCO delivered the last group of new "Pacifics", to be added to the NYC roster in 1927. This group of thirty locomotives was designated as Class K-3q and road numbers 3267 through 3296 were assigned.

In 1924 and 1925, the NYC rebuilt ten of it "Pacific" type locomotives. One, Class K-11f number 3174, was rebuilt in 1924 and reclassified as Class K-14f. Three, Class K-10a numbers 3000, 3009 and 3011 were rebuilt in 1925 and reclassified as Class K-14a, One, Class K-11c number 3052, was rebuilt in 1925 and reclassified as Class K-14c. Two, Class K-11e numbers 3159 and 3165, were rebuilt in 1925 and reclassified as Class K-14e. Three, Class K-11f numbers 3183, 3191 and 3193, were rebuilt in 1925 and reclassified as Class K-14f.

There are no surviving NYC&HR 4-6-2 "Pacific" type locomotives.

Conveniently, the guide shows the first Pacifics to be built for the NYC&HR, although K-1s appeared in the same year. One can see the great increase in boiler heating surface made available by stretching the boiler over another axle. What remained to be done was superheating the design, which was undertaken in a very few years.

These were later renumbered 514-518 and ran on the Boston & Albany.

Brooks may have produced the first 10 new-build perfect-square Pacifics (cylinder diameter equal to the bore) as K-11A (Locobase 5578) and Baldwin may have added the next 30 as K-11C (Locobase 13884), but Schenectady produced the majority of this large class.

K-11s were essentially the same design as the K-3, but had shorter tubes, put less weight on the rails and had much smaller drivers. A few were fitted with boosters and those engines had 25" x 26" cylinders using 200-psi steam for a 40,040-lb tractive effort assisted by an 11,000-lb booster at starting. It's not clear from the 1930 diagrams how many K-11s were boosted, but at that point only a few were so fitted.

Fourteen K-11s were converted by Beech Grove shops, the principal difference being the installation of 72" drivers. These were then classed K-14s.

The K-11a was essentially the same design as the K-3, but had shorter tubes, put less weight on the rails and had much smaller drivers. 50 entered service as K-10s built by Brooks, but were converted. The last 10 were supplied by Brooks in 1911-1913. Notice the unusually "square" cylinders in which diameter is equal to stroke.

A few were fitted with boosters and those engines had 25" x 26" cylinders using 200-psi steam for a 40,040-lb tractive effort assisted by an 11,000-lb booster at starting. It's not clear from the 1930 diagrams how many K-11s were boosted, but at that point only a few were so fitted.

Fourteen K-11s were converted by Beech Grove shops, the principal difference being the installation of 72" drivers. These were then classed K-14s.

As the Michigan Central stocked up (Locobase 5578) on these perfectly square Pacifics (in which the cylinder diameter equalled its stroke), Baldwin unaccountably was called on to deliver 30 to the New York Central itself.

Even more remarkably, the Philadelphians served the railroad until the late 1940s-early 1950s in most cases.

The first 22 were delivered with the boilers shown in this entry; they were road numbered in reverse order of their builder's numbers. Three others were fitted with combustion chambers (see Locobase 8911). The RE article notes the high ratio of heating surface area to cylinder volume and observes that that value and the relatively low boiler demand figure (549) "indicate that these engines have a large boiler capacity for high speed sustained for long periods."

In fact, they note, "A careful comparison of the ratios of the two types will also show that especial care has been taken in the design of the "Pacific" engines to provide the same satisfactory proportion between boiler and cylinder capacity as were obtained in the 'Prairie' type engine."

A look at the steam-distribution machinery considers the arrangement of the Walschaert valve gear, "which is similar to that employed on the "Pacific'' locomotive built lor the Pennsylvania R. by the American Locomotive Co. The link is located just behind the centre of the forward driving wheels and is supported on a steel casting outside of the driving wheels, which extends between the guide yoke and the frame cross stay between the first and second pair of driving wheels. The reversing shaft is supported on the back end of this same casting and the reverse shaft arm is directly connected to the radius bar by means of a slip joint."

Locobase realizes that this arrangement is evident on many other engines of the time and later.

All were later superheated; see Locobase 5549.

These Pacifics were delivered to the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern in several batches from 1907 to 1910 (See Locobases 8910-8911) for two of the designs). Their upgrade came soon after service entry and involved a superheater installation that contributed to an significant increase in combined heating surface area. Like the very similar K-2b/c/l updates (Locobase 9401) for the New York Central parent, these were served by 14" piston valves.

According to the 1930 guide to Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives seen on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003), most of the 84 still on the books in 1930 had trailing-truck boosters fitted for additional starting tractive effort.

The 3 shown in this entry were delivered with a combustion chamber that reduced the length of the firetubes by two ft, but increased direct heating surface considerably.

Like the rest of the New York Central System's Pacifics, these engines were superheated within a few years of its original delivery of a quintet in 1907 and 50 more in 1910. (These deliveries came at the same time as shipment of identical locomotives to the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (Locobase 8910-8911).

An unusual outcome to what would be a common upgrade, superheating the original K-2b/c/l boiler actually resulted in an increase in the overall heating surface. Piston valves measuring 14" in diameter distributed steam freely and clearly the NYC was well outfitted with light Pacific express power.

According to the 1930 guide to Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives seen on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003), unlike the LS&MS engines, most of 77 engines of this group still in use did not have boosters fitted. When they were so equipped, the weight on the drivers and the total engine weight were as on the LS&MS locomotives.

This series of superheated K-3s entered service from 1910 to 1924; . All had 14" piston valves. Alco-Schenectady and Baldwin shared the first 80-engine order (1911-1913) for the NYC&HR subsidiary. Alco produced 20 K-3a (road # 3418-3437) in February 1911 and 20 K-3d in August 1912 (road numbers 3378-3397). Baldwin followed with 20 K-3cs were produced in 3 batches in January 1913 (works #37423-37432, 37468-37472, and 37491-37495) and bearing road numbers 3398-3417). Alco then wrapped up the NY & HR K-3s with 20 more in September 1913, road numbers 3358-3377. Locobase chooses not to explain (if he knew) why the road number groups decreased numerically as the alphabetic suffix increased.

Alco's Bulletin gave a value of 765 sq ft for the superheater and the Baldwin specs suggested 962 sq ft, but only a few years later, the New York Central's own diagrams showed the 823 sq ft recorded in Locobase's details.

See Locobase 154 for the later K-3s.

1930 guide to Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives seen on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003),

1930 guide to Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives seen on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003).

In this variant, the number of fire tubes was greater, but the diameter smaller. However, superheater areas in NYC Pacifics were not consistently measured among subsidiaries

All had 14" piston valves. Apparently that's the way the Michigan Southern/Canada Southern wanted it

K-3n, p, q numbered 91 engines from Schenectady & Brooks from 1918-1923. It is this subclass -- weights from table in 1930 Locomotive Cyclopedia -- that the data describes.

As of the 1930 guide to Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives seen on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003), 168 K-3 locomotives had the specified heating surface areas and numbers of tubes and flues shown in this entry.

The Big Four (CCC&StL) received 50 engines in classes K-3j-p (45) and K-3r (5) from 1917 to 1925. The K-3rs had 3 sq ft less of arch tubes in the firebox.

Fitted with 9,700-lb booster on trailing truck to increase starting TE. Indicated horsepower at 45 mph was 2,100 hp; drawbar horsepower at 40 mph was 1,720.

In 1937-1939, the New York Central sent seven of this class to the Boston & Albany, which gave them road numbers 500-506

As of the 1930 guide to Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives seen on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003), 168 K-3 locomotives had the specified heating surface areas and numbers of tubes and flues shown in this entry.

The Big Four (CCC&StL) received 50 engines in classes K-3j-p (45) and K-3r (5) from 1917 to 1925. The K-3rs had 3 sq ft less of arch tubes in the firebox.

Fitted with 9,700-lb booster on trailing truck to increase starting TE. Indicated horsepower at 45 mph was 2,100 hp; drawbar horsepower at 40 mph was 1,720.

Data from 1930 guide to Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives seen on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003).

Data from 1930 guide to Dimensions and Classifications of Locomotives seen on http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-lb30.html (May 2003).

Although similar in size to fellow system railroad K-3 Pacifics from the LS & MS (K-3e) of 1913 and Michigan Central of 1910 (K-3h), the P & LE engines differed in having smaller drivers. They were supplied in two batches, the K-4As (builder's numbers 57432-57436) in April 1917 and the K-4Bs (58083-58087) in January 1918.

Other than the 5000, which was built for the New York Central itself (works number 65000 from Schenectady), these were delivered to NYC subsidiaries. The Michigan Central engines were delivered as road numbers 8350-8354 from Brooks (works numbers 66427, 66093-66096 in 1925) and 8355-8364 from Schenectady (works numbers 67140-67149 in 1926). The Big Four (Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis) received road numbers 6505-6514 from Schenectady (works numbers 67109-67118 in 1926). The Pittsburgh & Lake Erie received a batch of ten--road numbers 9235-9244 from Schenectady (works numbers 67150-67159 in 1927).

These were the biggest Pacifics in the New York Central system (Boston & Albany K-6 engines--Locobase 15870) had bigger boilers) and were the express passenger equivalents of the parent company's Hudsons. Like most of the Central's 4-6-2s, these had 14" (356 mm) piston valves.

Two of the class--4915 and 4917--were streamlined in 1936 with a casing designed by Henry Dreyfuss that was often described as the "upside down bathtub". He came up with a more widely praised streamliner for the 20th Century Limited's J-3c Hudsons.

Neither the boiler nor the running changed very much, although boiler pressure was set to 210 psi, all six drivers were discs, and the three auxliary axles had roller bearings. Adhesion weight rose to 193,800 lb (87,906 kg) and engine weight increased to 317,000 lb (143,789 kg). Tender capacity didn't change, but the new tender weighed 292,300 lb (132,585 kg).

The two engines went into service on the Mercury between Detroit and Cleveland, then switched to the James Whitcomb Riley express that linked Chicago, Indianapolis, and Cincinnati.

These big Pacifics proved to be the immediate precursors to the New York Central System's J1 Hudsons. They had relatively large 14" (356 mm) piston valves. Schenectady's engines weighed 3,000 lb (1,361 kg) than the Brooks quintet.

Their grate limitations compared to that of the B&A's J2s led to their transfer to the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie in 1931.

These Pacifics were very similar to the class Ks of the parent New York Central, but were built with more and smaller firetubes. They were delivered to the MC over an 8-year period.

In Locobase 5367, we noted that this class was delivered to the MC over a nine-year period. As it happened, that time span included the widespread adoption of superheaters to US locomotives. By the end of production, then, the boiler had been modified to include a superheater and a direct comparison between "early" and "late" is possible. This entry shows the last ten to be completed with the K-80 power dimensions (cylinder volume and driver diameter).

Their careers ended relatively early, probably because the class was underpowered compared to many other NYC Pacifics. Other than the 8486, which was retired in April 1932, the engines went to the scrapyard in April and May 1934.

Based on the New York Central's K class of saturated Pacifics, this string of K classes for the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis was produced first in December 1905 as similar engines. Class K consisted of 10 Brooks-built engines with road numbers 6400-6409 and 10 more Kb followed in June 1906 as 6410-6419. After a three-year break, Schenectady built 5 Kf in July 1909 and 6 Kh in March 1910 and 4 Kh in April 1911; this brought the road number series up to 6434. Kk - 10 engines - completed the class in June 1912.

Voges' letter detailing the reliability of K-class number 6416 demonstrate what levels of regular operations were possible on a well-nourished main-line like the Central's Big Four: "This engine has made 200,581 miles without repairs; no new flues and without having tires turned (Railway Steel Spring Co.'s tires), only receiving light running repairs in the round-house between trips. The engine left the Bellefontaine shop on Nov. 20, 1907 and returned for general repairs Dec. I", 1909. It hauled nine heavy express cars a day, running 288 miles at an average speed of 55 miles per hour. In the two years' time this engine had no failures of any kind."

They were all later superheated; see Locobase 9406.

Not long after the 35 locomotives of the K through KH classes had been delivered, Brooks delivered 10 Kk as superheated locomotives and soon modified the earlier, saturated K locomotives to the same configuration. They retained the 12" piston valves and Walschaert radial valve gear.

This sextet of Pacifics were the first such engines on the B&A. Compared to the parent NYC's K class (Locobase 5295), these boilers had more, smaller-diameter fire tubes. Otherwise, the power dimensions (cylinder volume, boiler pressure, and driver diameter) and grate area were the same.

The Kas may not have ever been superheated as they were retired in 1930-1932.

Locobase wouldn't be surprised if the Kcs were originally delivered to the same design as the six Ka shown in Locobase 15872.

Based on the New York Central's K class of saturated Pacifics, this string of K classes for the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis was produced first in December 1905 as similar engines; see Locobase 9760. After a three-year break, Schenectady built 5 Kf in July 1909 and 6 Kh in March 1910 and 4 Kh in April 1911; this brought the road number series up to 6434. Kk - 10 engines - completed the class in June 1912.

They were all later superheated; see Locobase 9406.

Locobase 5295 describes the original K-series that introduced the 4-6-2 arrangement to the New York Central in 1903. Only the 1946 book (that is, not the 1917, 1926, and 1930 editions) shows the Kj/Kl/Km superheated version of the K series that was produced for the B & A in March 1911 (Kj - 551-554), December 1912 (Kl - 555-559), and December 1913-January 1914 (Km - 560-565).

Based on the New York Central's K class of saturated Pacifics, this pair was built for the P & E with superheaters in November 1915. By that time, the P & E was part of the Big Four, which had superheated Ks of its own; see Locobase 9407.

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | K | K-11B/D/E/F | K-11a | K-11c | K-2a |

Locobase ID | 5295 | 13885 | 5578 | 13884 | 8910 |

Railroad | New York Central (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) | Michigan Central (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) | Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 |

Road Numbers | 2795-2799 | 3080-3089, 3100-3199 | 3001-3049, 3090-3099 | 3050-3079 | 4844-4833 |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Builder | Alco-Schenectady | Alco-Schenectady | several | Baldwin | Alco-Schenectady |

Year | 1903 | 1911 | 1910 | 1911 | 1907 |

Valve Gear | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 13' | 12.50' | 12.50' | 12.50' | 14' |

Engine Wheelbase | 33.62' | 34.08' | 34.08' | 34.08' | 36.50' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.39 | 0.37 | 0.37 | 0.37 | 0.38 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 59' | 66.31' | 66.31' | 66.31' | 67.92' |

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | |||||

Weight on Drivers | 141000 lbs | 172000 lbs | 172000 lbs | 172000 lbs | 170700 lbs |

Engine Weight | 215000 lbs | 266000 lbs | 266000 lbs | 266000 lbs | 261500 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 127000 lbs | 147500 lbs | 147500 lbs | 147500 lbs | 162200 lbs |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 342000 lbs | 413500 lbs | 413500 lbs | 413500 lbs | 423700 lbs |

Tender Water Capacity | 6000 gals | 7500 gals | 7500 gals | 7500 gals | 8000 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 10 tons | 10 tons | 10 tons | 10 tons | 14 tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 78 lb/yard | 96 lb/yard | 96 lb/yard | 96 lb/yard | 95 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 75" | 69" | 69" | 69" | 79" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 180 psi | 180 psi | 180 psi | 200 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 22" x 26" | 26" x 26" | 26" x 26" | 26" x 26" | 22" x 28" |

Tractive Effort | 28524 lbs | 38973 lbs | 38973 lbs | 38973 lbs | 29163 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 4.94 | 4.41 | 4.41 | 4.41 | 5.85 |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 206 sq. ft | 232.50 sq. ft | 232.50 sq. ft | 232.50 sq. ft | 234.40 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 50.20 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 3776 sq. ft | 3770 sq. ft | 3770 sq. ft | 3770 sq. ft | 4195 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | 775 sq. ft | 775 sq. ft | 775 sq. ft | ||

Combined Heating Surface | 3776 sq. ft | 4545 sq. ft | 4545 sq. ft | 4545 sq. ft | 4195 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 330.09 | 235.96 | 235.96 | 235.96 | 340.53 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 10040 | 10170 | 10170 | 10170 | 11300 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 10040 | 11899 | 11899 | 11899 | 11300 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 41200 | 48965 | 48965 | 48965 | 46880 |

Power L1 | 10503 | 15427 | 15427 | 15427 | 11472 |

Power MT | 492.66 | 593.21 | 593.21 | 593.21 | 444.49 |

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | K-2a/K-2d- superheated | K-2b - combustion chamber | K-2b/K-2c/K-2l - superheated | K-2e | K-2e/K-2k - superheated |

Locobase ID | 5549 | 8911 | 9401 | 4204 | 5550 |

Railroad | Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC) | Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 |

Road Numbers | 4800-4817, 4823-4844 | 4822-4820 | 4818-4822, 4845-4894 | 3555-3594 | 3555-3594, 3438-3494 |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Builder | Alco-Schenectady | Alco-Schenectady | Alco-Schenectady | Alco-Schenectady | Alco-Schenectady |

Year | 1907 | 1907 | 1907 | 1907 | 1907 |

Valve Gear | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 14' | 14' | 14' | 14' | 14' |

Engine Wheelbase | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.50' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.38 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 68.06' | 67.92' | 67.94' | 67.92' | 68.08' |

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | |||||

Weight on Drivers | 173000 lbs | 170700 lbs | 173000 lbs | 171500 lbs | 173000 lbs |

Engine Weight | 267800 lbs | 261500 lbs | 267800 lbs | 266000 lbs | 271500 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 153200 lbs | 162200 lbs | 153200 lbs | 164000 lbs | 154700 lbs |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 421000 lbs | 423700 lbs | 421000 lbs | 430000 lbs | 426200 lbs |

Tender Water Capacity | 7500 gals | 8000 gals | 7500 gals | 8000 gals | 8000 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 12 tons | 14 tons | 12 tons | 14 tons | 11 tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 96 lb/yard | 95 lb/yard | 96 lb/yard | 95 lb/yard | 96 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 79" | 79" | 79" | 79" | 79" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 22" x 28" | 22" x 28" | 22" x 28" | 22" x 28" | 22" x 28" |

Tractive Effort | 29163 lbs | 29163 lbs | 29163 lbs | 29163 lbs | 29163 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 5.93 | 5.85 | 5.93 | 5.88 | 5.93 |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 231.30 sq. ft | 296.40 sq. ft | 231.30 sq. ft | 228.30 sq. ft | 231 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 56.80 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.80 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 3791 sq. ft | 3409 sq. ft | 3791 sq. ft | 4210 sq. ft | 3399 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | 724 sq. ft | 724 sq. ft | 740 sq. ft | ||

Combined Heating Surface | 4515 sq. ft | 3409 sq. ft | 4515 sq. ft | 4210 sq. ft | 4139 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 307.73 | 276.72 | 307.73 | 341.75 | 275.91 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 11360 | 11300 | 11360 | 11300 | 11300 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 13178 | 11300 | 13178 | 11300 | 13334 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 53662 | 59280 | 53662 | 45660 | 54516 |

Power L1 | 24504 | 10455 | 24504 | 11439 | 23971 |

Power MT | 936.80 | 405.08 | 936.80 | 441.14 | 916.42 |

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | K-3a/c/d/g | K-3b | K-3e | K-3f/h/i/m | K-3n |

Locobase ID | 7583 | 5576 | 5577 | 5399 | 154 |

Railroad | New York Central (NYC) | Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC) | Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (NYC) | Michigan Central (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 |

Road Numbers | 3358-3437 | 4895-4904 | 4905-4909 | 8300-8339, 8400-8404 | 3323-3357 |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Builder | several | Alco-Schenectady | Alco-Schenectady | several | Alco-Brooks |

Year | 1910 | 1911 | 1913 | 1910 | 1918 |

Valve Gear | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 14' | 14' | 14' | 14' | 14' |

Engine Wheelbase | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.50' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.38 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 68' | 71' | 71' | 71' | 68.25' |

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | |||||

Weight on Drivers | 172000 lbs | 192400 lbs | 192400 lbs | 194500 lbs | 189400 lbs |

Engine Weight | 271000 lbs | 290200 lbs | 290200 lbs | 296500 lbs | 288800 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 153700 lbs | 207000 lbs | 207000 lbs | 158200 lbs | |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 424700 lbs | 497200 lbs | 497200 lbs | 447000 lbs | |

Tender Water Capacity | 7500 gals | 10000 gals | 10000 gals | 10000 gals | 10000 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 12 tons | 17 tons | 17 tons | 16 tons | 16 tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 96 lb/yard | 107 lb/yard | 107 lb/yard | 108 lb/yard | 105 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 79" | 79" | 79" | 79" | 79" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 23.5" x 26" | 23.5" x 26" | 23.5" x 26" | 23.5" x 26" | 23.5" x 26" |

Tractive Effort | 30898 lbs | 30898 lbs | 30898 lbs | 30898 lbs | 30898 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 5.57 | 6.23 | 6.23 | 6.29 | 6.13 |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 231 sq. ft | 231.30 sq. ft | 229.40 sq. ft | 231 sq. ft | 230 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 3424 sq. ft | 3791 sq. ft | 3760 sq. ft | 3762 sq. ft | 3422 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | 823 sq. ft | 724 sq. ft | 817 sq. ft | 893 sq. ft | 823 sq. ft |

Combined Heating Surface | 4247 sq. ft | 4515 sq. ft | 4577 sq. ft | 4655 sq. ft | 4245 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 262.33 | 290.45 | 288.07 | 288.23 | 262.18 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 11300 | 11300 | 11300 | 11300 | 11300 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 13447 | 13108 | 13334 | 13447 | 13447 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 54978 | 53662 | 54138 | 54978 | 54740 |

Power L1 | 24182 | 23128 | 24735 | 26135 | 24168 |

Power MT | 929.86 | 795.04 | 850.28 | 888.71 | 843.95 |

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | K-3p/q | K-41a | K-41b | K-4a/K-4b | K-5/K-5a/K-5b |

Locobase ID | 9402 | 5579 | 5580 | 7067 | 155 |

Railroad | New York Central (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) | Pittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC) | New York Central (NYC) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 |

Road Numbers | 3267-3322 | 4701-4723 | 4724-34 | 9225-9234 | 6515-6540/4905-4940 |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Builder | Alco | Collinwood | Collinwood | Alco-Schenectady | Alco |

Year | 1920 | 1916 | 1915 | 1917 | 1924 |

Valve Gear | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Stephenson | Walschaert |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 14' | 14' | 14' | 14' | 13.67' |

Engine Wheelbase | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.50' | 36.92' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.38 | 0.37 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 68.08' | 68.13' | 68.13' | 65.72' | 79.45' |

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | |||||

Weight on Drivers | 194500 lbs | 170500 lbs | 170500 lbs | 187000 lbs | 184500 lbs |

Engine Weight | 288000 lbs | 265000 lbs | 265000 lbs | 286700 lbs | 297500 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 167600 lbs | 156500 lbs | 156500 lbs | 149000 lbs | 274500 lbs |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 455600 lbs | 421500 lbs | 421500 lbs | 435700 lbs | 572000 lbs |

Tender Water Capacity | 10000 gals | 7500 gals | 7500 gals | 8400 gals | 15000 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 16 tons | 12 tons | 12 tons | 10 tons | 16 tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 108 lb/yard | 95 lb/yard | 95 lb/yard | 104 lb/yard | 103 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 79" | 72" | 72" | 72" | 79" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 205 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 23.5" x 26" | 22" x 28" | 22" x 28" | 23.5" x 26" | 25" x 28" |

Tractive Effort | 30898 lbs | 31998 lbs | 31998 lbs | 33902 lbs | 38600 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 6.29 | 5.33 | 5.33 | 5.52 | 4.78 |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 231 sq. ft | 222 sq. ft | 222 sq. ft | 229.40 sq. ft | 257 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 56.50 sq. ft | 55 sq. ft | 55 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 67.80 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 3424 sq. ft | 3603 sq. ft | 3671 sq. ft | 3760 sq. ft | 3952 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | 832 sq. ft | 766 sq. ft | 642 sq. ft | 823 sq. ft | 1158 sq. ft |

Combined Heating Surface | 4256 sq. ft | 4369 sq. ft | 4313 sq. ft | 4583 sq. ft | 5110 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 262.33 | 292.47 | 297.99 | 288.07 | 248.43 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 11300 | 11000 | 11000 | 11300 | 13899 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 13560 | 12980 | 12650 | 13334 | 17096 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 55440 | 52392 | 51060 | 54138 | 64803 |

Power L1 | 24346 | 22613 | 20571 | 22643 | 26569 |

Power MT | 827.87 | 877.18 | 797.97 | 800.84 | 952.43 |

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | K-6a, b | K-80 | K-80r | K/Kb - original | K/Kb/Kf/Kh/Kk |

Locobase ID | 15870 | 5367 | 7589 | 9760 | 9406 |

Railroad | Boston & Albany (NYC) | Michigan Central (NYC) | Michigan Central (NYC) | Big Four (NYC) | Big Four (NYC) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 |

Road Numbers | 590-599/9245-9254 | 8450-8491 | 8482-8491 | 6400-6419 | 6400-6444 |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Builder | Alco | Alco-Schenectady | Alco-Schenectady | NYC | NYC |

Year | 1925 | 1904 | 1912 | 1906 | 1912 |

Valve Gear | Baker | Stephenson | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 13.67' | 13' | 13' | 13' | 13' |

Engine Wheelbase | 36.92' | 33.62' | 33.62' | 33.62' | 33.62' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.37 | 0.39 | 0.39 | 0.39 | 0.39 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 71.96' | 60.42' | 65.92' | 64.71' | 64.71' |

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | |||||

Weight on Drivers | 150500 lbs | 140500 lbs | 156000 lbs | 142000 lbs | 151000 lbs |

Engine Weight | 235000 lbs | 221000 lbs | 252500 lbs | 222800 lbs | 242000 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 154900 lbs | 122600 lbs | 152300 lbs | 151000 lbs | 162000 lbs |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 389900 lbs | 343600 lbs | 404800 lbs | 373800 lbs | 404000 lbs |

Tender Water Capacity | 8000 gals | 6000 gals | 7000 gals | 7500 gals | 8000 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 12 tons | 10 tons | 12 tons | 12 tons | 13.5 tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 84 lb/yard | 78 lb/yard | 87 lb/yard | 79 lb/yard | 84 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 75" | 72.50" | 75" | 75" | 75" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 26" x 28" | 22" x 26" | 22" x 26" | 22" x 26" | 22" x 26" |

Tractive Effort | 42903 lbs | 29507 lbs | 28524 lbs | 28524 lbs | 28524 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 3.51 | 4.76 | 5.47 | 4.98 | 5.29 |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 252 sq. ft | 207.10 sq. ft | 234 sq. ft | 180 sq. ft | 207 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 67.80 sq. ft | 50.23 sq. ft | 56.50 sq. ft | 50.20 sq. ft | 50.20 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 4192 sq. ft | 3898 sq. ft | 3314 sq. ft | 3558 sq. ft | 3121 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | 1163 sq. ft | 672 sq. ft | 650 sq. ft | ||

Combined Heating Surface | 5355 sq. ft | 3898 sq. ft | 3986 sq. ft | 3558 sq. ft | 3771 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 243.64 | 340.76 | 289.71 | 311.04 | 272.83 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 13560 | 10046 | 11300 | 10040 | 10040 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 16543 | 10046 | 13221 | 10040 | 11747 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 61488 | 41420 | 54756 | 36000 | 48438 |

Power L1 | 23130 | 10423 | 23017 | 9743 | 21868 |

Power MT | 1016.47 | 490.65 | 975.84 | 453.79 | 957.83 |

Specifications by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Class | Ka | Kc | Kf/Kh - original | Kj/Kl/Km | Ko |

Locobase ID | 15872 | 15869 | 9761 | 9405 | 9407 |

Railroad | Boston & Albany (NYC) | Boston & Albany (NYC) | Big Four (NYC) | Boston & Albany (NYC) | Peoria & Eastern (NYC) |

Country | USA | USA | USA | USA | USA |

Whyte | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 | 4-6-2 |

Road Numbers | 3510-3515/515-520 | 3516-3517 | 6420-6434 | 551-565 | 10-11 |

Gauge | Std | Std | Std | Std | Std |

Builder | Alco-Schenectady | Alco-Schenectady | NYC | NYC | Alco-Brooks |

Year | 1905 | 1907 | 1909 | 1911 | 1915 |

Valve Gear | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert | Walschaert |

Locomotive Length and Weight | |||||

Driver Wheelbase | 13' | 13' | 13' | 13' | 13' |

Engine Wheelbase | 33.62' | 33.62' | 33.62' | 33.62' | 33.62' |

Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase | 0.39 | 0.39 | 0.39 | 0.39 | 0.39 |

Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) | 58.62' | 64.71' | 65.12' | 65.12' | |

Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) | |||||

Weight on Drivers | 143500 lbs | 150500 lbs | 143200 lbs | 155000 lbs | 151000 lbs |

Engine Weight | 222000 lbs | 235000 lbs | 233000 lbs | 241000 lbs | 242000 lbs |

Tender Light Weight | 139200 lbs | 154900 lbs | 162000 lbs | 160300 lbs | 162000 lbs |

Total Engine and Tender Weight | 361200 lbs | 389900 lbs | 395000 lbs | 401300 lbs | 404000 lbs |

Tender Water Capacity | 7600 gals | 8000 gals | 7500 gals | 8000 gals | 8000 gals |

Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) | 9 tons | 12 tons | 12 tons | 13.5 tons | 13.5 tons |

Minimum weight of rail (calculated) | 80 lb/yard | 84 lb/yard | 80 lb/yard | 86 lb/yard | 84 lb/yard |

Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort | |||||

Driver Diameter | 75" | 75" | 75" | 75" | 75" |

Boiler Pressure | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi | 200 psi |

Cylinders (dia x stroke) | 22" x 26" | 22" x 26" | 22" x 26" | 22" x 26" | 22" x 26" |

Tractive Effort | 28524 lbs | 28524 lbs | 28524 lbs | 28524 lbs | 28524 lbs |

Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) | 5.03 | 5.28 | 5.02 | 5.43 | 5.29 |

Heating Ability | |||||

Firebox Area | 198 sq. ft | 198 sq. ft | 180 sq. ft | 198 sq. ft | 201 sq. ft |

Grate Area | 50.20 sq. ft | 50.20 sq. ft | 50.20 sq. ft | 50.20 sq. ft | 50.20 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface | 3653 sq. ft | 3032 sq. ft | 3703 sq. ft | 2927 sq. ft | 3098 sq. ft |

Superheating Surface | 611 sq. ft | 615 sq. ft | 650 sq. ft | ||

Combined Heating Surface | 3653 sq. ft | 3643 sq. ft | 3703 sq. ft | 3542 sq. ft | 3748 sq. ft |

Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume | 319.34 | 265.05 | 323.71 | 255.88 | 270.82 |

Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information) | |||||

Robert LeMassena's Power Computation | 10040 | 10040 | 10040 | 10040 | 10040 |

Same as above plus superheater percentage | 10040 | 11747 | 10040 | 11747 | 11747 |

Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area | 39600 | 46332 | 36000 | 46332 | 47034 |

Power L1 | 10147 | 20808 | 10060 | 20657 | 21752 |

Power MT | 467.67 | 914.43 | 464.63 | 881.44 | 952.75 |

- K-3d 3389 (Otto Perry Photo)
- CCC&StL K-5b 4924
- B&A 559 (Class KL at West Springfield, MA, Sept 1948, photographer unknown Carl Weber collection)

- The New York Central System
- New York Central Historical Society
- NYC Forum
*Memories of New York Central Steam*by Arnold Hass (D. Carelton Railbooks)*New York Central's Later Power 1910-1968*by Alvin F. Staufer and Edward L. May (Alvin F. Staufer)*Rails Along the Hudson*by Thomas M. Crawford and Frederick A. Kramer (Quadrant Press)*Steam Power of the New York Central System: Vol 1, Modern Power 1915-1955*by Alvin F. Staufer (Alvin F. Staufer)*Thoroughbreds*by Alvin F Staufer (Alvin F. Staufer)*Steam Locomotives of the New York Central Lines, Volume 1, Parts 1 & 2 NYC&HRRR and B&A*by William D. Edson and H. L. Vail, Jr., Published by New York Central System Historical Society, Inc.

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